Antidoping or innovative rehabilitation technologies applicable after high-intensity physical trainings

Dr. Med., Professor A.S. Vanesyan1
Dr. Hab., Professor G.I. Mokeev1
Associate Professor, PhD K.V. Shestakov1
1Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa

Keywords: bodily energy reserve mobilization.

Background. Post-training rehabilitation in modern sports is still ranked among the most challenging issues in need of further, more efficient solutions. It is well known that long and intensive trainings provoke arrhythmias of different types, first-degree atrioventricular blockades with disorders in transmission of impulses, falls in erythrocyte/ hemoglobin contents and other imbalances in the peripheral blood composition [5]. It is traditional to correct the changes by special diets with vitamins, microelements and mineral salts, saunas and pharmacological therapy using a wide range of medicines up to anabolic steroids [8]. Such therapy, however, is known to put athletes at risks of cumulative/ side effects: e.g. salbutamol, propranolol and epinephrine may cause nausea, vomiting, tremor, headache, tachycardia, arrhythmia, cramps, heart failure, atrioventricular blockade and abnormal liver function [4]. The situation is further aggravated by biased/ discretional qualifications of many permissible medicines as doping agents, like it was the case with meldonium reportedly diagnosed in many Russian athletes by WADA officials to disqualify them for the Olympics in Brazil.

Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of the new post-training rehabilitation technologies.

Methods and structure of the study. The technologies were developed by the Clinical Psychology Sub-department of the Psychology Department of BSU in partnership with the Physical Education Sub-department of Ufa State Aviation Technical University (USATU) and combined into a Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization (BERM) method to improve the stress tolerance, academic progress and working capacity and help athletes recover after high-intensity physical trainings and correct potential health disorders on a self-reliant basis [2, 3].  The Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method offer musical therapy, known to be of multiple positive effects for the heart rate and brain function normalizing and reserve capacity mobilizing purposes [1, 6, 7]) and verbal trainings. The Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method includes the following three stages: (1) Relaxation music and meditation in lying position (on a comfortable mat) with closed eyes to effectively relax the facial, bodily and limb muscles; (2) Switchover to modified consciousness, with a feeling of warmth in limbs and concentration on and control of the internal organs; and (3) Using the modified consciousness to balance the bodily psychosomatics.

The trainees’ progress in the Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method mastering trainings was tested by the pre-and post-training Noninvasive Thermovascular Blood Analyzer (NTBA) system to obtain (for 5-7min) heart rate test data and more than 70 blood test rates with accuracies of up to 83%.

Sampled for the study were 12 kickboxers who were tested (for 12 days) prior to the trainings, 2 days after the trainings and 20-25min after the beginner Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization training session. In addition to the NTBA tests, the sample had their blood pressure and heart rate (HR) tested. 

Results and discussion. The physical health test data of 3 athletes are given hereunder in Tables 1-3. Every athlete was tested with a modest post-training blood pressure growth followed by a significant reduction after the 20-25min beginner Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization training session. The other health test rates showed insignificant variations.

Table 1. Athlete S (21 years old) physical health test data

    Test rate

Stage

Blood pressure, mmHg

HR, beats per min

Parasympathetic activity

Heart rate variation

Pre-training

152/70

67

High

High

Post-training (day 3)

166/55

54

Modestly high

High

Post-BERM

122/47

58

High

High

Table 2. Athlete Y (35 years old) physical health test data

    Test rate

Stage

Blood pressure, mmHg

HR, beats per min

Parasympathetic activity

HR variation

Pre-training

123/82

64

Modest

Modestly high

Post-training (day 3)

132/80

69

Very low first extrasystole

Modestly high t

Post-BERM

117/70

61

Modestly high first extrasystole

Normal

Table 3. Athlete N (18 years old) physical health test data

    Test rate

Stage

Blood pressure, mmHg

HR, beats per min

Parasympathetic activity

HR variation

Pre-training

105/59

73

Very high

Notably high

Post-training (day 3)

124/62

65

Very high

Notably high

Post-BERM

113/63

50

Very high

Notably high

We obtained blood test rates in the study, and selected 14 most informative test rates out of 70: see Tables 4-6. 

Table 4. Athlete S (21 years old) blood test data

 

                                           Stage

Test rate

Pre-training

Post-training (day 3)

Post-BERM

 

1

Hemoglobin, g/l (norm 130-172)

145,4

145,36

156,06

2

Erythrocytes 10Е12/l (norm 4.3-5.7)

4,63

4,57

4,88

3

Leucocytes 10Е9/l (norm 3.5-12)

5,09

5,37

5,4

4

ESR, mm/h (norm 1–14

6,16

25,73

3,95

5

Lymphocytes, % (norm 19–37)

32,73

16,4

33,93

6

Monocytes, % (norm 3–11)

2,46

2,47

3,44

7

АST*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.46)

0,12

1,19

0,11

8

АLТ*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.68)

0,18

1,19

0,18

9

О2 demand, ml/ min (norm 250–410)

254,66

233,11

217,05

10

Vital capacity, ml (norm 3500–4500)

3963,47

3234,83

3446,61

11

Blood flow rate in skeletal muscles, % (norm 15–75)

16,87

9,66

16,25

12

Liver portal blood flow rate, % (norm 25–55)

25,42

24,3

23,96

13

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, mmHg (norm 90– 140)

132,13

164,8

110,11

14

Vital energy demand, kcal/kg/mi (norm 1.28–6.94)

2,62

8,98

2,91

Note:*АST aspartate aminotransferase, АLТ alanine aminotransferase

Table 5. Athlete Y (35 years old) blood test data

 

                                           Stage

Test rate

Pre-training

Post-training (day 3)

Post-BERM

 

1

Hemoglobin, g/l (norm 130-172)

139,67

125,58

154,9

2

Erythrocytes 10Е12/l (norm 4.3-5.7)

4,36

4,03

4,8

3

Leucocytes 10Е9/l (norm 3.5-12)

7,48

6,17

4,03

4

ESR, mm/h (norm 1–14

22,91

1,87

16,88

5

Lymphocytes, % (norm 19–37)

53

25,56

53

6

Monocytes, % (norm 3–11)

4,86

3,02

3,55

7

АST*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.46)

0,55

0,48

0,53

8

АLТ*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.68)

0,95

0,38

0,9

9

О2 demand, ml/ min (norm 250–410)

257,32

295,97

230,45

10

Vital capacity, ml (norm 3500–4500)

2661,86

2801,09

2792,34

11

Blood flow rate in skeletal muscles, % (norm 15–75)

17,01

12,24

20,03

12

Liver portal blood flow rate, % (norm 25–55)

24,75

25,78

24,59

13

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, mmHg (norm 90– 140)

113,08

163,8

121,96

14

Vital energy demand, kcal/kg/mi (norm 1.28–6.94)

5,92

7,65

3,66

Note:*АST aspartate aminotransferase, АLТ alanine aminotransferase

Table 6. Athlete N (18 years old) blood test data

 

                                           Stage

Test rate

Pre-training

Post-training (day 3)

Post-BERM

 

1

Hemoglobin, g/l (norm 130-172)

133,64

129,2

142,13

2

Erythrocytes 10Е12/l (norm 4.3-5.7)

4,18

4,14

4,47

3

Leucocytes 10Е9/l (norm 3.5-12)

5,17

12,04

6,58

4

ESR, mm/h (norm 1–14

1,56

22,99

28,23

5

Lymphocytes, % (norm 19–37)

31,03

16,4

37,58

6

Monocytes, % (norm 3–11)

12,9

3,72

6,7

7

АST*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.46)

0,15

0,81

0,1

8

АLТ*, mmol/l (norm 0.1-0.68)

0,16

0,59

0,17

9

О2 demand, ml/ min (norm 250–410)

313,66

279,24

253,38

10

Vital capacity, ml (norm 3500–4500)

3600

3141,7

3099,23

11

Blood flow rate in skeletal muscles, % (norm 15–75)

18,11

17,03

16,09

12

Liver portal blood flow rate, % (norm 25–55)

27,16

25,08

24,7

13

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, mmHg (norm 90– 140)

126,76

115,43

112,55

14

Vital energy demand, kcal/kg/mi (norm 1.28–6.94)

4,79

7,07

5,22

Note:*АST aspartate aminotransferase, АLТ alanine aminotransferase

The study data and analyses showed high benefits of the Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method for the post-training rehabilitation in sports as verified by the blood tests (hemoglobin/ erythrocyte/ lymphocyte level, blood flow rates in the skeletal muscles, АSТ rates, cerebrospinal fluid pressure and vital energy demand rates). The significant improvements in the blood test rates were interpreted as due to the expansion of the peripheral blood vessels, improved blood flow rates, the abdominal muscle relaxation and autonomic heart rate control balancing effects.

Conclusion. Proved benefits of the Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method for the post-training rehabilitation in sports give grounds to recommend the method for application (at least once in 3-4 months) in the athletes’ health tests to have the training systems individualized based on the noninvasive physicality and blood tests. The Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization method may be recommended for application by the national sport elite and Olympic reserve training organizations.

References

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Corresponding author: evena_salto@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to rate benefits of new rehabilitation technologies applied after high-intensity physical trainings. The technologies were developed by the Clinical Psychology Sub-department of the Psychology Department of BSU in partnership with the Physical Education Sub-department of USATU and combined into a Bodily Energy Reserve Mobilization (BERM) method to improve the stress tolerance, academic progress and working capacity and help athletes recover after high-intensity physical trainings. Sampled for the study were 12 kickboxers. The BERM method is dominated by musical therapy and verbal trainings including the following three stages: (1) relaxation music and meditation in lying position with closed eyes to relax the facial, bodily and limb muscles; (2) switchover to the modified consciousness (MC), with a feeling of warmth in limbs and concentration on the internal organs; and (3) using the MC to normalize the bodily psychosomatics. The study data and analyses showed high benefits of the BERM method for post-training rehabilitation in sports.