Physical education and recreation model for students with chronic non-specific respiratory diseases

Associate Professor, PhD E.M. Yanchik1
Dr. Hab., Associate Professor E.A. Cherepov1
PhD Hab, Professor Laurentiu-Gabriel Talaghir2
1South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk
2«Dunarea de Jos» University, Galati, Romania

Keywords: physical and recreational classes, special health group students, chronic unspecific respiratory diseases, physicality tests

Background. Research findings and health statistics show a fast growth of people diagnosed with chronic unspecific respiratory diseases (CUSRD) [6, 7], with the situation often explained by the latest environmental issues of negative impact on the human ecology on the whole and the sanogenetic mechanisms in particular. Physical activity is recognized to offer gigantic sanogenetic benefits in many fields including the chronic disease prevention and treatment initiatives [1, 3].

The CUSRD are ranked among the top priority problems by the modern pulmonology with their pathological respiratory dysfunctions of different origins and with different propagation mechanisms – albeit much similar in the courses and anthropometrical/ functional disorders. Success of the relevant rehabilitation processes largely depends on the sensitivity of the therapeutic procedures to the actual health disorders, on the physical activity, and efficiency of the health improvement tools [1]. In view of the negative health situation, the academic community needs to develop efficient physical education and recreation models to normalize the cardio-respiratory functionality in the CUSRD-diagnosed students.

Objective of the study was to experimentally test benefits of a special physical education and recreation model to normalize the cardio-respiratory functionality in the students diagnosed with chronic unspecific respiratory diseases.

Methods and structure of the study. The CUSRD-diagnosed students’ progress as a result of the physical education and recreation model testing experiment was rated by the pre-and post-experimental tests (prior to and after the experimental academic year) to obtain the anthropometrical data; Robinson (RI) and Skibinsky (SI) indices; combined cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality rates; and the Stange-Gench Breath-Holding Test rates [5].

The physical education and recreation practices were run in compliance with the valid academic Physical Education curriculum with its basic and elective components. It should be mentioned that the valid physical education curriculum cannot be easily customized for the needs of special health group (SHG) students with CUSRD, and we complemented the standard physical education service (1-2 times a week) in the Experimental Group (EG) by the year-round swimming practices in summer time, plus skiing practices in winter time to replace the academic summer track and field trainings. The model required the physical trainings and swimming practices (2 times a week) being non-interrupted for vacation periods as required by the relevant didactical concepts.

The Reference Group (RG) of the CUSRD-diagnosed students was trained in the track and field sports within the academic physical education curriculum, with the practices customized to the health conditions, anthropometrical characteristics and functionality so that up to 50% of each session time was assigned to controlled running/ skiing practices; up to 40% to the traditional conditioning, physical fitness and special practices; and up to 10% to the active games.

The groups were offered self-reliant home trainings with individual sets of exercises customizable for the cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality disorders; plus the Strelnikova’s and Buteyko’s systems based respiratory gymnastics with the instruction manuals – also customizable to the individual health disorders.

Primary physical development and functionality tests were run in the late September, followed by the model testing experiment in October through May. The running, athletic training and active game components of the model were customized to the session times (early/ late day time, weekends, etc.), mental/ emotional states, academic intellectual pressure (tests, exams) etc. The post-experimental anthropometrical/ functionality tests were run in June.

Results and discussion. Given in Table 1 and 2 are the pre- versus post-experimental cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality test rates of the sample. As demonstrated by Table 1, vital capacity (VC) rates in the both groups grew up closer to the health standard (3833.3±24.8 and 3339.7±27.4 in the EG and RG, versus the standards of 4102.9±15.7 и 4153.3±14.0, respectively). On the whole, the group progress may be interpreted as indicative of the PE and recreation model benefits for the respiratory functions, with the EG progress tested meaningfully higher. The vital index (VI) characteristic of the oxygen demand was tested to grow from poor to good points in the EG and satisfactory in the RG. And the Robinson index was tested to fall to the above-average level – that may be interpreted as indicative of the higher reserve capacity of the cardiovascular system in the sample [2, 4].

Table 1. Pre- versus post-experimental cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality test rates of the SHG sample, M±m

Group

Vital capacity, ml

Vital index

Robinson index

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

EG

3240,1±30,1

3833,3±24,8*

44,3±0,7

55,7±0,2*

114,4±1,6

70,8±0,6*

RG

3160,2±32,6

3339,7±27,4*

45,0±0,4

49,6±0,1*

108,2±0,9

74,7±0,4*

Note: *p≤0.05

Given in Table 2 are the respiratory test data with the derivative test rates characteristic of the respiratory muscle group fitness. Thus the pre- versus post-experimental Stange-Gench Breath-Holding Test rates showed progress in the oxygen demand in both groups towards standard. The response rate (RR) and balance ratio (BR), for instance, showed the growing tolerance to hypoxemia in both groups. The Skibinsky (SI) indices were used to rate the combined cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality, and they were also found to grow towards the standard by the experimental year end, with the growth rates found significantly higher in the EG – that may be attributed to the effects of special exercises and swimming/ skiing practices on the cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality.

Table 2. Pre- versus post-experimental cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality test rates and derivative indices

Group

Stange test, s

Response rate (RR), points

Gench test, s

Balance ratio, points

Skibinsky index, points

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

pre-exp.

post-exp.

EG

43,1±

0,5

62,3±

0,7*

1,3±

0,2

0,89±

0,1*

27,6±

0,2

42,3±

0,1*

4,3±

0,5

1,9±

0,1*

18,7±

1,8

38,5±

1,8*

RG

44,0±

0,3

56,4±

0,4*

1,2±

0,1

0,94±

0,3*

29,1±

0,7

39,5±

0,4*

4,8±

0,1

2,2±

0,4*

22,1±

2,6

30,9±

3,0*

Note: *p≤0.05

The test data and analyses helped identify the typical cardiovascular/ respiratory system functionality disorders in the sample: thus the pre-experimental vital capacity rates were poor in both groups.

Conclusion. The new physical education and recreation model was found beneficial as verified by the EG progress in the cardio-respiratory and musculoskeletal system functionality tests and falls in the acute disease statistics for the experimental academic year – with a special progress in the health conditions of the individuals diagnosed with bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis. The combined post-experimental cardiovascular and respiratory system functionality tests rated the sample health condition as normal, and the oxygen demand rates as good.

The cardio-respiratory and musculoskeletal system functionality tests showed progress in the CUSRD-diagnosed SHG students’ health conditions, particularly in the external respiration function tests. The progress may be due to the special swimming and skiing practices plus the health-customizable sets of special respiratory practices to correct the respiratory system dysfunctions.

References

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Corresponding author: сherepov.e@mail.ru

Abstract

The study analyzes benefits of a special physical education and recreation model designed to normalize the cardio-respiratory functionality in students diagnosed with chronic unspecific respiratory diseases (CUSRD). The pre-experimental tests found a variety of cardio-respiratory system disorders in the special health group students diagnosed with CUSRD. It is demonstrated that the valid academic physical education curriculum is poorly adaptable to the needs of special health group students with CUSRD. In the new model piloting experiment, the Experimental Group (EG) was offered special swimming practices in addition to the standard physical education lessons 1-2 times a week in summer time; plus skiing practices in winter time to replace the academic summer track and field trainings. The model required the physical trainings and weekly swimming practices being non-interrupted for vacation periods. The new physical education and recreation model was found beneficial as verified by the EG progress in the cardio-respiratory and musculoskeletal system functionality tests and falls in the acute disease statistics for the experimental academic year – with a special progress in the health conditions of the individuals diagnosed with bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis. The combined post-experimental cardiovascular and respiratory system functionality tests rated the sample health condition as normal, and the oxygen demand rates as good.