Analysis of fat mass distribution in bodily segments of 17-20 year old female students trained in fitness groups

Associate Professor, PhD L.A. Romanova1
Dr.Hab., Professor A.V. Yeganov1
Associate Professor, PhD S.A. Nikiforova1
A.S. Aminova1
1South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk

Keywords: fitness, female students, bioelectrical impedance, basal metabolism, adipose tissue, muscular component of the body.

Introduction.In the ever-changing conditions of external and internal environments, the adipose tissue in humans acts as an energy depot, performs the function of thermal insulation, participates in the regulation of heat or cold supply, provides information about energy metabolism [8, 9, 10]. The total adipose tissue mass (TATM) can be a criterion for assessing man’s somatic and mental health rates, etc. [2, 3, 7].

The fat mass in women accumulates in the abdomen, buttocks, thighs, upper arms, and back, and somewhat less in the breast area [3]. The ratio between the adipose tissue mass (ATM) and total body mass (TBM) in women ranges within 25% [4, 5].

Different types of aerobic practices are known to significantly decrease the fat component of body mass [2, 6], however, there is a lack of scientific studies on the fat mass distribution in bodily segments.

Objective of the study was to analyze the fat mass distribution in bodily segments of the 17-20 year-old female students with different body fat percentage trained in fitness groups.

Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study conducted in 2017 were 109 full-time female students engaged in various fitness groups (step aerobics, shaping, hip-hop, dancing, athletic gymnastics, etc.) and having different sports experience (from 2 to 10 years). The sample was divided into 2 subsamples: with low (n=20) and high (n=20) fat mass indices (%). The subjects with the average fat mass indices (n=69) were not taken into account. The mean age of the female students equaled 19.3 years, their age and height were not statistically significant.

The patterns of fat mass accumulation in individual bodily segments of the female students trained in fitness groups was analyzed using the Tanita BC-418MA bioelectrical impedance scales analyzer, which makes it possible to obtain the segmental body composition rates [2]. An electric signal was transmitted to the body through special contact points, on which the female athlete set their feet when on the scale platform. This signal was used to directly determine the body mass and impedance rates, fat mass percentage, lean body mass and other indicators. The fat mass percentage was measured accurate to 5%. The bioelectrical impedance technology we used is a fast body composition analysis easy-to-use when taking mass measurements.

The data obtained were used to make a fat distribution map, including the fat mass percentage, muscle mass percentage, lean right leg mass, lean right arm mass, trunk fat mass and trunk muscular mass, as well as basal metabolic rate: anabolism and catabolism. This is the minimum amount of energy consumed by the human body to maintain its key vital functions in a quiescent state: breathing, blood circulation, hormone production, regeneration, creation of new cells, tissues, processes of breakdown of complex body substances to simpler ones, etc.

The scales analyzer enables to measure and calculate the component composition of various bodily segments indicated in the left column of the table. This paper shows only the right-sided lateralization, since the left-sided one was characterized by a similar trend.

The study was conducted at the premises of the Research Center of Sports Science of FSBEI HPE "South Ural State University" (National Research University), Chelyabinsk, in 2017.

The in vitro study was conducted indoors in the morning. All subjects were apparently healthy and were examined in a state of;muscle;relaxation, in a standing position, after meals and drinks; they wore two-piece swimsuits.

Results and discussion. Table 1 below presents the data obtained in the female students trained in different fitness groups and having different fat mass percentage in various bodily segments. As can be seen from the table, the female students with relatively low total fat mass indices=13.6±0.52, %) differ statistically significantly from the group of female students with high ones =29.8±0.61, %). There were statistically significant differences (t=2.11-13.6 at p≤0.04-0.001) in the AT indicators in individual bodily segments. In the group with the relatively high total fat mass indices, we observed an upward trend and differences in the following indicators: total fat mass; lean muscle mass; fat mass percentage in the right leg; right leg fat mass; lean right leg mass; fat mass percentage in the right arm; lean right arm mass; trunk muscular mass; trunk fat mass; trunk muscular tissue mass; total body mass; and quiescent-state basal metabolism/ energy rate.

Statistical comparison of patterns of fat mass accumulation in bodily segments of female students trained in different fitness groups and having different body fat percentage rates ±m)

AT indicators

Fat mass percentag

in the body

t

р

low

(n=20)

high

(n=20)

1.Total fat mass, %

13.6±0.52

29.8±0.61

-20.3

≤0.01

2.Adipose tissue mass, kg

6.50±0.37

18.94±0.73

-15.3

≤0.01

3.Lean muscle mass, kg

54.16±1.2

59.26±1.2

-2.98

≤0.01

4. Fat mass in the right leg, %

22.72±0.6

33.12±0.6

-13.4

≤0.01

5. Right leg fat mass, kg

2.06±0.08

3.88±0.11

-13.6

≤0.01

6. Lean right leg mass, kg

6.95±0.14

7.72±0.14

-3.94

≤0.01

7. Right leg muscular mass, kg

6.58±0.13

7.28±0.13

-3.69

≤0.01

8.Fat mass in the right arm, %

14.65±1.1

29.94±0.8

-11.1

≤0.01

9.Right arm fat mass, kg

0.32±0.02

0.92±0.03

-15.5

≤0.01

10.Lean right arm mass, kg

1.88±0.07

2.12±0.07

-2.55

≤0.01

11.Right arm muscular mass, kg

1.74±0.06

1.98±0.06

-2.65

≤0.01

12.Trunk adipose tissue mass %

9.18±1.81

27.2±0.79

-9.14

≤0.01

13.Trunk fat mass, kg

1.98±0.21

9.51±0.48

-14.2

≤0.01

14.Trunk muscular tissue mass, kg

23.23±0.6

24.9±0.50

-2.11

≤0.04

15.Total body mass, kg

47.24±1.26

63.36±1.25

-9.06

≤0.01

16.Energy rate/ basal metabolism, kj

5311.7±107

5891.3±102

-3.92

≤0.01

Note: ±m – mean value, ± mean error; t – Student;t-criterion under;dispersion; analysis, ≤ – differences are statistically significant; р – significance level.

This suggests that female students with lower total fat mass indices have lower fat deposit rates in individual bodily segments, which is quite logical.

Among the factors contributing to an increase of fat mass indices in the human body are: age; gender; nutrition caloric value; level of physical activity; lifestyle, metabolic rate; immune system dysfunction.

It should be mentioned that basal metabolic rate (energy rate) is associated primarily with metabolism (anabolism and catabolism, determining all the processes in which the human body consumes and produces the necessary amount of energy to maintain its vital functions).

Anabolism is the set of chemical processes aimed to increase the amount of energy, create and regenerate cells in order to maintain important bodily functions, respiration, blood circulation, production of hormones, muscular tissue, etc.

Catabolism is the set of processes of breakdown of complex body substances to simpler ones. In the process of catabolism, the necessary amount of energy is released to ensure motor activity. By fat burning they mean the process of catabolism, which is associated with the level of motor activity aimed to produce energy by means of fat splitting.

Some people have relatively fast or slow metabolism, the latter being prone to gain in the fat mass rather quickly. Therefore, during the fat burning process, female students with high total fat mass rates should undergo a special fitness training program.

Conclusions. High total fat mass in the body of female students was found associated with the relatively slow basal metabolism rates indicative of the energy savings for the key vital functions.

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Corresponding author: cherepov.e@mail.ru

Abstract

The study analyzes the fat mass distribution in bodily segments of 17-20 year old female students trained in fitness groups. The subsamples with low and high total fat mass indices were found to differ in the fat mass accumulation patterns in the following bodily segments: total fat mass; right leg mass; right leg fat mass; lean right leg mass; muscular tissue mass; fat mass percentage in right arm; lean right arm mass; trunk muscular mass; trunk fat mass; trunk muscular tissue mass; total body mass; and the quiescent-state basal metabolism/ energy rate. High total fat mass was found associated with the relatively slow basal metabolism rates indicative of the energy savings for the key vital functions.