Dynamics of athletes' health and physical development in long-term training process


Dr.Hab., Professor A.Kh. Talibov1
PhD, Associate Professor N.V. Gushchina2, 3
PhD, Associate Professor O.V. Lyashenko2, 4
E.S. Dmitrieva2
1Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health,bSt. Petersburg
2National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg
3I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg
4St. Petersburg State Institute of Cinema and Television, St. Petersburg

The paper assesses the athletes' fitnesss level based on the data of lesson observation and biomedical control over elite athletes' training. The study involved 357 physically healthy people aged 20-38 years, doing sports regularly. Observations began with a relatively high level of sports qualification and fitness with the age of the subjects being up to 20 years old (30.5%), 20-24 years (58.3%), 28-35 years (11.2%).
Dynamic observations showed that the absolute majority of leading athletes (75.7%) did not experience any significant changes in health over the years of intense training (except for various short-term illnesses that ended in complete functional recovery). An improvement in general health indicators in the training process due to the treatment and prophylactic measures taken (mainly, foci of chronic infection) and an increase in body resistance due to improved general fitness was observed in 15.4% of athletes. And only in 8.9% of athletes, the health indicators have deteriorated somewhat over a number of years of intense training. This is caused by chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system and injuries - in 12 people, chronic infections- in 8 people, in 7 people- overtraining phenomena (of which in 5 testees - against the background of the existing health disorders), past illnesses not related to sports - in 5 people.
Thus, the overwhelming majority of those studied had no negative changes in their state of health under the influence of intense long-term sport training.

Keywords: athletes, training, observation, overtraining, blood pressure.


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