PhD, Associate Professor M.A. Kuzmin1
1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow
2St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg
Keywords: differential sport psychology, mental adaptation, mental conditioning, cyclic sports, team sports, artistic sports, martial arts, competitive conditions.
Background. The national sport reserve training system gives a growing priority to the psychological service to support athletic progress in different sport disciplines. The traditional communication, ideological and other commonly applied mental control and conditioning tools are not always effective for the practical applications in the precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation and conditioning systems. This is the reason why much attention is paid to the new mental conditioning models for application in the modern sports today. To facilitate progress in this field, the most promising ways to improve the theoretical and practical aspects of the psychological service system need to be offered for sport applications and for progress in modern sport psychology on the whole.
Objective of the study was to provide a methodological basis for the differentiated mental conditioning model applicable in many sport disciplines.
Study results and discussion. Many issues with concern to the physical training process differentiation for application in sports and other sectors have been fairly well covered in the available study reports [5, 6]. Presently it may be beneficial to make a special emphasis on the differentiated approach to the competitive mental conditioning and adaptation related matters. Competitive mental adaptation may be interpreted as the key objective of the psychological service in modern sports .
Modern sport disciplines and relevant competitive performance standards are different in their design and content and, therefore, the competitive mental adaptation models are rather variable and sport-specific too . Generally, the existing sport disciplines may be classified by the performance requirements and standards that largely predetermine the relevant precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation logics. In this study we analyzed the mental adaptation models applicable in modern team, cyclic and artistic sports and martial arts. Based on the study data, we have developed a frame practical competitive mental conditioning model for the competitive sports with the relevant internal and external psychological adaptation factors, functions and criteria critical for the competitive success .
In the cyclic sport disciplines, the core precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation criteria and success factors may be listed as follows: location of competitive event and quality of sport facilities; quality of sport equipment; difficulty level; climatic and weather conditions; external factors of influence; interpersonal relations in a team; and presence of close relatives and acquaintances in the audience. Individual responses to these factors may complicate the precompetitive mental conditioning process.
It is the personality qualities that are critical for success of the mental adaptation process in the cyclic sport disciplines. Athletes need to have a good individual adaptation resource; reasonable stress/ anxiety tolerance; high self-confidence and firm motivations for success; good self-control and determination on the way to competitive goals; be highly responsible and able to control own life and actions; never complain or be unhappy with the circumstances, situations and other people. Competitive success in the cyclic sport disciplines is generally facilitated by a moderate mental plasticity level associated with good endurance under heavy training loads and reasonable responses to variable situations and conditions.
In the motivational domain, the competitive mental adaptability in the cyclic sport disciplines is dominated by the duty-driven motivations associated with the relevant volitional qualities including discipline and determination.
In the team sport disciplines, the core precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation success factors are dominated by the external variable and unpredictable factors. When the external widely variable factors are underestimated, it may be detrimental to success of the precompetitive mental adaptation process.
Studies of the precompetitive mental conditions in team sport disciplines show a high variability of the behavioural models and activation levels, with the prestart excitation and activation levels coming to a prestart fever that may be detrimental to the competitive success.
Athletes in the team sport disciplines are generally tested with the relatively well developed communication skills and internality levels in the interpersonal relations. It should be noted that the individual motivations and determinants are sport-specific on the whole. In the team sport disciplines they are dominated by the socializing and communication motivations and relevant communication skills and internality levels in the interpersonal relations.
In the artistic sport disciplines, the core precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation success factors are dominated by the following: location and facilities of competitive event; accommodation; food quality; background information about rivals; and interpersonal relations in a team.
Precompetitive mental conditions in these sport disciplines are highly variable in their manifestations, with concrete responses being sport-specific. Athletes in the artistic sport disciplines are tested with the highly variable anxiety levels and prestart conditions dominated by fever and activation that increase the risks of emotional breakdowns during competitions.
Generally, success in the precompetitive mental conditioning process is determined by the individual qualities. The modern artistic sport disciplines are highly demanding to the individual mental adaptation qualities that ideally must be dominated by plasticity, emotionality and volatility of the nervous processes in association with fair emotional stability and reasonable tolerance (low internality) to failures .
The specific motivations for success and relevant individual determinants are developed on a sport-specific basis. Success of the individual mental conditioning in the modern artistic sport disciplines is largely determined by the self-perfection motivations driven by a variety of relevant volitional qualities including purposefulness, determination, general internality and discipline.
In modern martial arts, the core precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation success factors are as follows: positive attitudes to competitive conditions, with the conditions accepted as fairly safe and good background information about rivals; with the prestart conditions ideally dominated by good health and mood associated with reasonable emotional excitement.
Success of the precompetitive mental conditioning in martial arts is largely determined by the specific personality qualities, with the adaptation process ideally driven by the reasonable excitement and aggression associated with a fair mental and nervous stability, fighting spirit and drive for leadership and domination .
The specific motivational factors and relevant personality determinants in modern martial arts must ideally be dominated by the self-perfection goals with reasonable mental and nervous stability along with relevant volitional qualities including high responsibility focused on success, with due purposefulness and determination . High precompetitive and competitive mental adaptability is critical for competitive accomplishments in any modern sport discipline.
Conclusion. Projects to develop a differentiated mental conditioning and adaptation model applicable in the modern athletic training systems are ranked among the top priorities in modern sport psychology. Sport science has long been in need of a differential sport psychology as the new field for the studies of mental progress logics in specific groups of athletes and sport disciplines. The key mission of the differential sport psychology is to explore the existing and offer new ways to speed up individual precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation processes in different sport disciplines.
- Gorbunov G.D. Psikhopedagogika sporta. Ucheb. posobie dlya studentov vuzov, obuchayuschikhsya po napravleniyu 032100 – «Fizicheskaya kultura» [Sports psychopedagogics. Study guide for universities majoring in 032100 – ‘Physical Education']. 5th ed., rev., sup. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2014, 326 p.
- Kuzmin M.A. Professionalnaya adaptatsiya lichnosti v sporte [Professional adaptation of the personality in sports]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 6, pp. 59-62.
- Kuzmin M.A. Psikhologicheskaya adaptatsiya k usloviyam sorevnovaniy v edinoborstvakh [Psychological adaptation to conditions of martial arts competitions]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 5, pp. 37-39.
- Kuzmin M.A. Rol lichnostnykh svoystv v adaptatsii sportsmenov khudozhestvennykh vidov sporta i edinoborstv [Role of personal properties in adaptation of athletes engaged in artistic sports and martial arts]. Uchenye zapiski un-ta im. P.F. Lesgafta, 4 (86), 2012, no. 4, pp. 73-77.
- Panchenko I.A. Differentsirovanny podkhod k fizicheskoy podgotovke studentov gornykh spetsialnostey [Differentiated approach to physical training of mining students]. Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2007, vol. 173, pp. 230-232.
- Rudenko G.V., Kostromin O.V., Mokeev G.I. et al. Trenirovka kvalifitsirovannykh kikbokserov v usloviyakh godichnogo mikrotsikla [Training of skilled kickboxers in annual microcycle]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 6, pp. 66-68.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study analyzes the existing psychological service system in the national sports and discusses the development prospects of modern sport psychology on the whole. A growing priority in the initiatives to advance existing physical, technical and tactical training systems is given to the psychological service system improvement issues on the whole and special mental conditioning issues in particular. Objective of the study was to provide a methodological basis for the differentiated mental conditioning model applicable in many sport disciplines.
Projects to develop a differentiated mental conditioning and adaptation model applicable in the modern athletic training systems are ranked among the top priorities in modern sport psychology. Sport science has long been in need of a differential sport psychology as the new field for the studies of mental progress logics in specific groups of athletes and sport disciplines. The key mission of the differential sport psychology is to explore the existing and offer new ways to speed up individual precompetitive and competitive mental adaptation processes in different sport disciplines.