Role of physical development and specific social factors in differentiation of spirometric characteristics of children

Фотографии: 

M. Pasek

Marcin Pasek,
Monika Michaіowska-Sawczyn,
Alicja Nowak-Zaleska,

Wojciech Sakіak, Artur Ziуіkowski
Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport

Key words: biological development, weight-height indicator, fatty tissue, ventilation parameters of lungs, ecological conditions.

Introduction

Physical development and physical fitness are shaped  under the influence of many factors which are subject to diverse changes and therefore a need of constant tracking both positive and negative effects is necessary. Comprehension of the development in natural conditions is understood as the process of changes the matter is subject to leading to the existence of new forms. The process of developmental changes in human life can be considered in the aspect of physical, motor or psychological development. Physical or biological development is an entirety irreversible biological process, occurring in the body from the moment of conception till transformation of an individual into a mature organism. Physical development is also a biological process influencing quantitative and qualitative changes in human body in terms of both outside and internal factors. Assessment of physical development is based on such features as height and weight of the body and such characteristics as: the development of secondary sex characters, sexual maturity, teeth eruption, level of skeleton ossification and many others. Finally physical development is compared with calendar age.

Examinations showed that physical development and physical fitness are interdependent [1]. But they do not run in parallel and their level is conditioned and regulated by the following factors: endogenous genetic factors - determinants of development, endogenous  paragenetic factors - stimuli of development and exogenous factors - modifiers of development. Among the latter we distinguish cultural/social factors i.e. character of environment, level of education, amount of earnings, traditions, customs and lifestyle which is being bound both with genetic as well as environmental conditioning. The second group of modifiers forms bio-geographic factors such as fauna, flora, climate, mineral resources as well as air pollutants. Importance of physical development, capacity and selected social variables  In the differentiation of lungs ventilation parameters In group of selected Pomeranian primary schools children is the purpose of the study. It was based on comparative analysis of selected indicators of biological development in, comparable in figures, groups of primary school children from the city and village of the Pomeranian province.

Material and methods

111 children participated in the research: 58 12.7 ± 0.5 SD - year- old boys and 53 12.9 ± 0.5 SD -year-old girls. They are representatives of 2 primary schools from the Pomeranian province; one group from the big city, and the second from the village. School in the city was represented by 30 boys and 25 girls. 28 boys and 28 girls represented the school in the village. The research on physical development in these groups included the analysis of the following parameters: body height and weight, weight-height indicator, fatnesses of the fatty tissue and properties of lung ventilation. The following research tools were applied: the measuring tape, medical balance, skin fold caliper Fat Tester and KoKo spirometer. Basic ventilation parameters were subject to statistical assessment: FVC (Forced Vital Capacity), FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second), FEF 25-75% (Forced Expiratory Flow) and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow Rate) as well as body height and weight, the BMI index and the sum of skin folds according to the British method (sum of calf and triceps fat) [2]. Capacity was measured by Astrand-Ryhming step test. Test for boys requires subject to step up and down on a 40 centimeter bench for 5 minutes at the rate of 90 steps per minute (measured by metronome). Girl perform test on a 33 centimeter bench at the same lenght of time. Heart rate is measured by sport tester Polar FS2C in fourth minute of effort (steady state). Then this final value is used to access maximal oxygen consumption Vo2max using Astrand-Ryhming nomogram with correction index for children. Arithmetic means and standard deviations were estimated. Significance of differences of arithmetic means in urban and rural groups, smokers and non-smokers  in both genders was examined with the Student T test and a Pearson coefficient of correlation was calculated for ventilation parameters and other somatic elements. The level of significance Alfa=0, 05 was accepted. Calculations were made with the Statistica 9 program. The research was carried out in spring 2008.

Results

Measurement of absolute values of five  selected parameters of the respiratory system in groups of boys from different places of abode shows statistically significant differences to the advantage of boys from the urban area in FVC, FEV1 and PEFR (p£0,05) indicators.

Table 1. Absolute values of selected parameters of the respiratory system in groups of boys from urban and rural areas

Place

 

Parameter

City (n-30)

Village (n-28)

t

x

SD

x

SD

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

3,05

2,69

0,88

3,12

4,94

0,49

0,42

0,05

0,68

0,89

2,80

2,52

0,90

2,98

4,30

0,49

0,42

0,05

0,68

0,89

2,63*

2,22*

-1,47

1,08

3,39*

 

* p 0,05.

The same examination in groups of girls confirmed the advantage in PEFR indicator amongst the urban population. At the same time statistically substantial difference was shown in the relationship between FEV1 and FVC.

Table 2. Absolute values of selected parameters of the respiratory system in groups of girls from urban and rural areas

Place

 

Parameter

City (n-25)

Village (n-28)

t

x

SD

x

SD

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

3,15

2,76

0,88

3,34

5,24

0,50

0,41

0,06

0,70

1,03

3,11

2,83

0,91

3,38

4,59

0,62

0,55

0,05

0,81

1,16

0,34

-0,67

-2,57*

-0,28

2,91*

* p 0,05.

Another criterion diversifying the examined group was smoking cigarettes in a family. However it was not notified, both with reference to boys as well as girls, that the above factor influences differences in lung ventilation.

Table 3. Absolute values of selected parameters of the respiratory system in groups of boys from smoking and non-smoking families

Smoking

 

Parameter

Smoking parents (n-27)

Non-smoking parents  (n-31)

t

x

SD

x

SD

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

3,00

2,67

0,89

3,10

4,56

0,51

0,44

0,05

0,66

1,01

2,87

2,56

0,89

3,02

4,71

0,43

0,36

0,05

0,66

1,01

1,33

1,35

0,00

0,58

-0,73

 

Table 4. Absolute values of selected parameters of the respiratory system in groups of girls from smoking and non- smoking families

Smoking

 

Parameter

Smoking parents (n-26)

Non-smoking parents (n-27)

t

x

SD

x

SD

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

3,07

2,76

0,90

3,39

4,89

0,52

2,86

0,89

0,82

1,12

3,21

0,47

0,06

3,31

4,81

0,65

0,52

0,05

0,68

1,20

-1,17

-0,97

0,65

0,54

0,37


The analysis of correlation between selected biological parameters in both genders demonstrated numerous associations not only within individual ventilation parameters but also in height and body weight. In both genders weaker (except for FVC and FEV1) relationships between the BMI indicator and fatness of fatty tissue and ventilation parameters were revealed.

Table 5. Correlation coefficient between selected parameters of biological development in the group of boys

 

Height

Weight

BMI

Skinfolds

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF

PEFR

Height

Weight

BMI

Skinfolds

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

1,00

0,67*

0,21*

0,34*

0,73*

0,71*

-0,14*

0,44*

0,50*

0,67*

1,00

0,85*

0,79*

0,52*

0,49*

-0,11*

0,27*

0,26*

0,21*

0,85*

1,00

0,82

0,20

0,18

-0,04

0,08

0,01

 

0,34*

0,79*

0,82*

1,00

0,23*

0,24*

-0,01*

0,14

0,09

0,73*

0,52*

0,20*

0,23*

1,00

0,91*

-0,33*

0,42*

0,55*

0,71*

0,49*

0,18

0,24*

0,91

1,00

0,07

0,70

0,60

-0,14

-0,11*

-0,04

-0,01*

-0,33

0,07

1,00

0,58

0,60

0,44*

0,27*

0,08

0,14

0,42

0,70

0,58

1,00

0,54

0,50*

0,26*

0,01

0,09

0,55

0,60

0,60

0,54

1,00

 

* p 0,05

Table 6. Correlation coefficient between selected parameters of biological development in the group of girls

 

Height

Weight

BMI

Skinfolds

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF

PEFR

Height

Weight

BMI

Skinfolds

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

1,00

0,65*

0,27*

0,38*

0,66*

0,68*

-0,01*

0,45*

0,46*

0,65*

1,00

0,89*

0,78*

0,61*

0,60*

-0,08*

0,32*

0,21*

0,27*

0,89*

1,00

0,77*

0,41*

0,38*

-0,10

0,16

0,01

 

0,38*

0,78*

0,77*

1,00

0,42*

0,38*

-0,15

0,13

0,05

0,66*

0,61*

0,41*

042*

1,00

0,92*

-0,26*

0,47*

0,50*

0,68*

0,60*

0,38*

0,38*

0,92*

1,00

0,08

0,70*

0,62*

-0,01*

-0,08*

-0,10

-0,15

-0,26*

0,08

1,00

0,55*

0,30*

0,45*

0,32*

0,16

0,13

0,47*

0,70*

0,55*

1,00

0,74*

0,46*

0,21*

0,01

0,05

0,50*

0,62*

0,30*

0,74*

1,00

 

* p 0,05

Apart from somatic parameters the assessment of functional parameter - physical capacity with reference to five analysed ventilation indicators was performed. This analysis showed much stronger correlation in the group of girls. The correlation is demonstrated in the table below.

Table 7. Correlation coefficient between selected parametersof the respiratory system and physical capacity in groups of boys and girls.

Parameter

Boys capacity

Girls capacity

FVC

FEV1

FEV1/FVC

FEF 25-75%

PEFR

0,16

0,21*

0,05

0,15

0,18

0,53*

0,51*

-0,10

0,28*

0,26*

 

* p 0,05

Discussion

Division of research groups into city and village inhabitants was supposed to show possible differences of ventilation parameters with reference to the ecological state of place of abode. Many elaborations about limiting influence of polluted air on functional indicators of lungs are present in literature [3]. The authors’ analysis does not confirm this relationship what might be explained at least in two ways. Firstly, the sanitary state of air in cities and villages of the Pomeranian province does not demonstrate a considerable diversity. The Tri-city district is characterized by increased pollution rate only in close neighbourhood of industrial plants and along communication routes. In this situation, although the atmosphere monitoring is carried on only for the urbanized area and it is not possible to relate it interchangeably to the rural areas, one should suppose that differences in pollution of cities and villages are too small to regulate noticeably ventilation parameters of the respiratory system. This leads to the second observation that besides ecological factors there are more essential ones which diversify the examined population in the scope of lung ventilation.

Suggested in literature [4] relationships between smoking cigarettes and limitation of functional possibilities of the respiratory system were not found too. This situation reminds the earlier analysis concerning the state of eco-friendly air which gives birth to supposition that air pollutants irrespective of their origin can influence the respiratory system only at great concentrations.

However in case of passive smoking such information is rarely found. Correlation coefficients between individual body build characteristics show numerous relationships in both genders in the examined group. Amongst the existing correlations parameters of the respiratory system are most often analysed in the context of fatty tissue fatness [5]. Provided the authors often indicate the negative influence of adiposity for the respiratory system, this relation was not observed in the examined group. Almost all morphological parameters in both genders were positively correlated.

Apart from earlier analysed ecological and social conditioning, physical capacity is an additional important functional factor connected with ventilation parameters of lungs and earlier it was mentioned in polish literature  in context of motor abilities [6]. Much more relationships between these indicators were demonstrated in the group of girls. However, it is hard to determine whether ventilation properties determine physical capacity or vice versa.  Available findings imply that the influence of systematic training on the respiratory system is not as strong as on cardiovascular, motor or skeletal systems but even in this field it is possible to observe a lot of beneficial changes [7]. On the other hand certain morphological conditioning is observed for example in persons inhabiting considerable heights [8] e.g. expanded chest accompanied by increased hematocrit value that increases physical capacity.

Conclusions

  1. Place of residence constitutes essential conditioning diversifying respiratory indicators of lungs in the examined groups of boys, predominantly by city group.
  2. Tobacco smoke in passive smoking is also poorly correlated with respiratory capacity in the examined group of young people.
  3. Statistically significant relationships were observed in individual somatic features. It shows relationships of ventilation parameters of the respiratory system with body height, weight and to a lesser degree, fatness of fatty tissue.
  4. The level of physical capacity shows more relationships with ventilation parameters in the group of girls, whereas this relationship in the group of boys was found only at FEV1 index.

Literature

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  3. Scarlett, J., Abbott, K., Peacock, J., Strachan, D.Anderson, H. Acute effects of summer air pollution on respiratory function in primary school children in southern England. Thorax 1996, 51 [11], 1109-1114.
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