Female students' fitness shape variations in academic cardio-strength fitness groups

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor G.N. Tkhazeplova1
PhD, Associate Professor А.М. Tkhazeplov1
1
Berbekov Kabardino-Balkarian State University, Nalchik

Keywords: cardio strength training, physical fitness, training simulators, cardiointervalogram, mental standardization.

Introduction. It is not easy for a man to stay healthy under current conditions. A modern man is constantly exposed to human-induced environmental changes, heavy physical and psychoemotional loads, for which reason he has to overextend himself increasingly frequently [1, 3]. With the advent of a new world trend – fitness, significant alterations began to take place in the sphere of health-improving technologies. Year after year, the number of sports, medical, health-improvement fitness programs, implemented in work with different contingents of trainees, including university students, is growing steadily [5, 6]. It is obvious that modern fitness programs require individualization of training loads as a factor of optimization of a healthcare aftereffect of physical loading. In this regard, we share the authors’ opinion that special attention should be paid to the physiological mechanisms of influence of the strength training elements and methods on the body of trainees [4]. In addition, types of physical exercises, amount and intensity of physical loads should be strictly regulated based on the results of monitoring of trainees’ functional state, their individual characteristics and needs.

 The study involved a group of 2nd-5th-year female students of 18-22 years of age, a total of 12 people. Training sessions were conducted in the gym of the physical culture and sport center (FSC) of Kabardino-Balkarian State University and were attended on a voluntary basis.

Objective of the study was to give theoretical and experimental evidence of the functional progress made by female students in the academic fitness groups.

Methods and str of the study. The education process surveys were performed to analyse the practical design and content of the training sessions and included the qualitative and quantitative rates of the training practices; progress tests; content and performance analysis; plus analyses of physical fitness, progress rates and individual motivations of the students (physical health improvement, shaping etc.) attending the fitness groups. The progress testing practices were designed to rate progress in the speed-strength abilities and strength endurance of the trunk flexors and limb muscles, and included:  sit-ups (30 sec); push-ups (30 sec); rope skipping (number of jumps per 60 seconds). The effectiveness of cardio strength fitness training was determined through an ascertaining educational experiment, focused on the accomplishment of the research objectives, using the methods of monitoring of the functional state of female students engaged in extracurricular power fitness. The lesson plan was aimed at overall strengthening and development of all muscle groups, development of the motor qualities under study. It included cardio training with specified intensity in the form of cyclic exercises (running and cyclocross on cardio simulators) and acyclic strength exercises in the form of circular training on other simulators. All fitness exercises were conditionally divided into three groups by the principle of development of physical qualities: 1) cardio program - development of aerobic endurance to improve cardiac activity and circulation: walking, running on a stepper or stationary bike, elliptical trainer; 2) strength programs. Sticking to development of all muscle groups and development of motor qualities in general, the basic fitness exercises for several muscle groups were included in one program: for hands; for legs (thighs); basic fitness exercises for abdominals; exercises for pectoral muscles; basic fitness exercises for back muscles; 3) exercises to develop speed and explosive qualities. This category included skipping-rope exercises. The exercises were performed on a stationary bike, elliptical trainer, stepper, adductor and abductor machines, incline/decline abdominal crunch bench, as well as barbell and dumbbell exercises, skipping-rope exercises, warm-up exercises and exercises classified according to anatomical clue. The routine was performed twice a week, at the same time at least one day was left for rest between the training sessions. Each training session, including warm-up, rest breaks and final relaxation, lasted one hour.

The functional changes occurring in the body of female students of the fitness groups were detected and analyzed by the method of monitoring of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and central nervous system (CNS) using the UPFT-1/30-"Psychophysiologist" device. The examination lasted 5 minutes. The device made it possible to use a variety of psychophysiological and psycho-diagnostic techniques by determining the functional status of the autonomic nervous system by the cardiac rhythm. The functional capabilities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and central nervous system (CNS) were studied using the variational cardiointervalometry (CIM), where assessment of the functional status by means of special sensors from the kit served as a criterion of classification of functional state by heart rate variability (HRV) [7]. The level of the functional status was determined based on the heart rate variability data obtained through cardiointervalogram (ECG signal) analysis and MMPI test (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory used to diagnose mental disorders) and its shortened version - "Mini-Mult" tests. The psycho-diagnostic techniques (adapted by F.B. Berezin and used for an in-depth case study of mental standardization (PN) help evaluate a personality structure, its standardization [2, 7].

Results and discussion. The results obtained during control testing of the level of development of motor qualities under the influence of the fitness program were compared before and after the educational experiment.

Re-testing at the end of the experiment revealed a significant overrun in growth rates of speed-strength abilities - 183.33±39.52 times, which is confirmed by significant differences (p<0.05). At the same time, we registered the maximum individual values ​​in rope jumping - 250 times. Similarly to rope jumping, other tests were also used to determine the threshold of statistical significance: push-ups - 12.83±3.16 reps (at the beginning) and 18.33±1.98 reps (at the end of the experiment); sit-ups – 16.9±3.0 and 23.3±3.5 reps (at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, respectively).

As seen in Table 1, the study of the functional capabilities by means of the variational CIM based on the "Psychophysiologist" test results [7] revealed that at the beginning of the research, the functional state of 33.4% of the female students was characterized as "maximum-permissible" (16.7%) and "negative" (16.7%). The detected adaptive capability disorders do not necessarily indicate the presence of some organic problems, but reflect the degree of tension of the neurohumoral mechanisms of regulation, related primarily to deadaptation to physical loads. The heart rate variability description reflects the adaptive capabilities of the cardiovascular system [7]. The "maximum-permissible" functional state of particular female students was accompanied by tachycardia (HR>120 bpm) in combination with "moderate sinus arrhythmia, increased ergotropic activity against the background of predominating autonomous contour of regulation and tension of regulatory systems". And, as a result, we observed a low level of functional capabilities and psychophysiological reserves.

Table 1. Functionality rates variations in female students of fitness groups, according to variational CIM results obtained during experiment

Verbal estimation of functional state /

Level of functional capabilities

   1

2

3

4

5

Stages

Optimal/ high

(%)

Near-optimal/ high (%)

Permissible/ decreased

(%)

Maximum-permissible/ low (%)

Negative/ very low (%)

Beginning of experiment

 

0

 

16.6

 

50

 

16.7

 

    16.7

End of experiment

 

16.6

 

33.4

 

50

 

0

 

        0

The "negative" functional state at the beginning of the experiment "was accompanied by pronounced arrhythmia. Potential causes: physical deconditioning, extrasystole or incomplete sinoauricular block". Nevertheless, by the end of the experiment, these indicators changed for the better, having reduced the negative support to zero (0%). Therefore, our task was to focus on the appearance of such phrases in the automated interpretation, as the detected state can be a contraindication to physical work, which requires an optimum functional state of a trainee. Consequently, there was a need to be cautious when selecting individual workload for the female students with the indicated interpretation in testing using the device [7].                                                                                                                                

At the end of the study, the percentage ratio of the functional state indicators in the female students changed for the better, as evidenced by the absence of "negative" and "maximum-permissible" levels of functional capabilities in the females (0%) and transition of this category of students to a group with a "permissible" state. Also, a "high" level of functionality was noted in 50% of the females (16.6% "optimal" and 33.4% "near-optimal" functional state) (Table 1).

The analysis of the PN test results in terms of MMPI during the experiment in the form of individual interpretations of "Psychophysiologist" revealed the following.

As Table 2 shows, in 50% of the female students the state of the ANS in terms of the variational CIM test had a positive dynamics, while the other half of the females were characterized by an unchanged state of the ANS ("bad"). In terms of the functional capabilities of the ANS, we observed positive shifts in 33.3% of the female students, while the rest (66.7%) remained stable in terms of these indicators. Throughout the experiment, the level of tension of the ANS decreased in 50% of the female students, in 16.7% this indicator increased, and in 33.3% of the females the initial level of tension of the ANS remained unchanged.

Table 2. Dynamics of MMPI test results in female students throughout experiment

MMPI test results

Test results

State of ANS in terms of variational CIM test

Level of functional capabilities of ANS

Level of tension of ANS

Mental standardization PN

Integral estimation of adaptability

Positive dynamics

 

 

50 %

 

 

 

 

33.3 %

 

 

16.7 %

 

 

50 %

 

 

 

33.3 %

Maintenance of initial level

 

 

50 %

 

 

 

 

66.7 %

 

 

33.3 %

 

 

 

-

 

 

66.7 %

Decreased level

 

 

 

        -

 

 

 

 

          -

 

 

50 %

 

 

50 %

 

 

 

-

Improvement of the functional state in terms of the variational CIM test, which is characterized as "permissible" (average), occurred in 50% of the female students (absence of such indicators as "low" and "very low" - 0%). According to the mental standardization (PN) index, a half (50%) of the female students (single indicators – 0.771 and 0.885, 0.035 and 0.355, 0.601 and 0.917) had positive dynamics in the test results. The PN indices in the rest of the female students (50%) decreased by the end of the experiment. Regarding the indicator "Integral estimation of adaptability", we can state the following: 33.3% of the female students were found to have positive dynamics in the initial and final MMPI test results –changes in their state from "low" to "decreased" and from "decreased" to "high" were observed; in 66.7% of the female students the level of integral estimation of adaptability remained unchanged - "decreased".

Conclusions. The proposed program of cardio fitness training contributes to the development of the studied physical qualities, which is confirmed by the significance of differences (p<0.05). The MMPI test revealed "low" integral estimation of adaptability, which testifies to the lack of attention on a trainer’s part to the psychological preparation of students during cardio fitness training, aiming of their efforts to change self-attitude, cultivation of own abilities and physical qualities in order to achieve the desired goals: to become strong, slender, able-bodied, etc. The heart rate variability analyses and data interpretations made it possible to profile the students’ cardiovascular system adaptive capability, helped monitor the state of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and estimate the level of its functional capabilities in female students engaged in cardio-strength fitness. The adaptive capability disorders found by the experiment were interpreted as evoked by stresses of the neurohumoral regulatory mechanisms and dominated by deadaptation to physical loads.

To improve the functional capabilities of the body the individualized training program needs to be adjusted to each female student based on the indices obtained by means of  "Psychophysiologist" test system.

References

  1. Ashmarin B.A. Teoriya i metodika fizicheskogo vospitaniya [Theory and methods of physical education]. Moscow: Prosveschenie publ., 1990, pp. 26-28.
  2. Berezin F.B., Miroshnikov M.P., Sokolova E.D. Metodika mnogostoronnego issledovaniya lichnosti [Method of multilateral study of personality]. Moscow: Folium publ., 1994, 175 p.
  3. Vaytsekhovskiy S.M. Kniga trenera [Coach's book]. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport publ., 1971, pp. 243-230.
  4. Dubrovskiy V.I. Sportivnaya meditsina [Sports medicine]. Moscow: Vlados publ., 1998, 432 p.
  5. Evseev Y.I. Fizicheskaya kultura [Physical Culture]. Rostov-on/D.: Fenix publ., 2005, P. 7.
  6. Zheleznyak Y.D. Osnovy nauchno-metodicheskoy deyatelnosti v fizicheskoy kulture i sporte [Fundamentals of scientific and methodological activities in physical culture and sports]. Moscow: Akademiya publ., 2005, 454 p.
  7. Ustroystvo psikhofiziologicheskogo testirovaniya UPFT-1/30 – «Psikhofiziolog». Metod. spravochnik [Psychophysiological testing device UPFT-1/30 - "Psychophysiologist". Method. directory]. Medicom MTD publ., 2004, 77 p.

Corresponding author: thagna@rambler.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to give theoretical and experimental evidence of the functional progress made by female students in the academic fitness groups. The education process surveys were performed to analyse the practical design and content of the training sessions and included the qualitative and quantitative rates of the training practices; progress tests; content and performance analysis; plus analyses of physical fitness, progress rates and the individual motivations of the students (physical health improvement, shaping etc.) attending the fitness groups. The progress testing practices were designed to rate progress in the speed-strength abilities and strength endurance of the trunk and limb muscles.

The fitness program assisted by the cardio-strength training simulators with application of special fitness exercises was designed to reinforce and develop every muscle group and build up the strength and speed-strength qualities and abilities, with the program benefits verified by the significant (р<0.05) physical progress rates in the course of the experiment. The study data obtained by the variational cardiointervalometry (CIM) with the HR variability being rated by ECG made it possible to profile the autonomous nervous system (ANS) performance and the ANS functionality in the female students of the cardio-strength fitness groups in the study period. The adaptive capability disorders found by the experiment were interpreted as evoked by stresses of the neurohumoral regulatory mechanisms and dominated by deadaptation to physical loads. The HR variability analyses and data interpretations made it possible to profile the students’ cardiovascular system adaptive capability.