Development of speed-strength glycolytic endurance in judo

Фотографии: 

Professor, Dr.Hab. V.G. Pashintsev
A.M. Surkov
Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow

Keywords: maximum, minimum and average heart rate, calories, lactate, oxygen saturation.

Introduction. Judo is a sport in which physical training of athletes is most important. The fact that high level of speed-strength performance is a key factor in the successful implementation of technical and tactical actions in competitive conditions has been confirmed by numerous studies of physiological functions of wrestlers, pedagogical observation of judokas in a training process and competitive practice [A.O. Akopyan, V.G. Pashintsev].

Many judo experts [V.V. Ivashchenko, M.A. Lapnikova et al.], who studied speed and strength qualities of athletes, determined methods of pedagogical stimulation with a view of their development. However, until recently there has not been a single view of the methods of development of speed-strength endurance of wrestlers, especially in judo. Particular research papers [M.A. Lapnikova, V.V. Ivashchenko, V.G. Pashintsev et al.] do not provide insight into the strength and speed-strength training methods that should be implemented for more efficient training of judokas.

The purpose of the study was to substantiate a set of kettlebell exercises and prove its pronounced effect on glycolytic endurance of judokas.

Materials and methods. The study involved 20 athletes aged 17 to 23 years, who had sports qualification from the I category up to Masters of Sport in judo and sambo.

Speed-strength endurance raining classes were given three times a week every other day. The overall training cycle lasted thirty days, during which ten training sessions were dedicated to improvement of the speed-strength glycolytic component of working capacity.

Research methods: pulse oximetry, conducted using the digital pulse oximeter NONIN 3100 WristOx and processed using the nVision 5.0 software, were used to estimate the base, minimum, average and average˂88% oxygen saturation; blood lactate was measured by means of the Accutrend Lactate meter (Germany), which is used to measure blood lactic acid using photometry; heart rate (HR) was registered using the heart rate monitor PolarS610TM, the data were transferred to the SonnyPCG-FX 370 computer and processed using the Polar Precision Performance software, we estimated maximum, minimum and average HR throughout the performance of training load, as well as maximum oxygen consumption and consumed energy in calories.

To determine the effects of speed-strength load on glycolytic endurance we developed a special set of kettlebell exercises based on three principles:

  • The exercises were focused on the development of the muscles involved in the execution of technical actions in judo;
  • At least 2/3 muscles of an athlete's body were involved in each exercise;
  • The exercises were performed in a mode conforming to glycolytic energy supply.

Speed-strength training set in the glycolytic mode

Exercise 1 (Fig. 1): Double kettlebell swing with back lift and squat. Aim - development of shin extensors, hip flexors and extensors, trunk extensors, shoulder girdle muscles. Preparatory position: forward bend, holding the kettlebells in straight arms between the legs, straight back. Exercise performance: a snatch with back lift and squat by 90º at maximum speed.

Fig. 1.

Exercise 2 (Fig. 2): Double kettlebell snatch. Aim - development of shin extensors, hip flexors and extensors, truck extensors, shoulder girdle muscles. PP: standing with the feet shoulder-width apart, holding the kettlebells in the straight arms between the legs. Exercise performance: forward bend, double kettlebell snatch and fixation of the arms straight and locked at maximum speed.

Fig. 2.

Exercise 3 (Fig. 3): Alternating double jerk. Aim - development of back, shoulder girdle and arm muscles. PP: standing with the feet shoulder-width apart, holding the kettlebells in the bent arms at chest height. Exercise performance: alternating double kettlebell jerk.

Fig. 3.

Exercise 4 (Fig. 4): Alternating bent-over double kettlebell row. Aim - development of back, shoulder girdle muscles and arm flexors. PP: feet wider than shoulder-width apart, forward bend, holding the kettlebells in the straight arms between the legs. Exercise performance: alternating double kettlebell row.

Fig. 4.

Exercise 5 (Fig. 5): Kettlebell raise behind the back. Aim - development of trunk, shoulder girdle muscles and arm flexors. PP: standing with the feet wider than shoulder-width apart, holding the kettlebells in the straight arms in front of the body. Exercise performance: kettlebell raises behind the back, head turning oppositely.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

Exercise 6 (Fig. 6): Calf raises. Aim - development of toe, ankle and shin muscles. PP: standing at a 5-cm plank half-footed, holding the kettlebells in the straight arms along the trunk. Exercise performance: calf raises.

Exercise 7 (Fig. 7): Elbow flexion. Aim - development of the shoulder girdle muscles, arm flexors, extensors, finger extensors. PP: feet shoulder-width apart, holding the kettlebell in the arms along the trunk. Exercise performance: alternating elbow flexion.

The research lasted four weeks, during which seven of the proposed exercises were performed according to the schedule: 30 sec load, 30 sec rest, 5 reps. 5 min rest intervals in-between the exercises. The exercises were performed using the strictly defined methods. Motor timing of the training session - 35 min.

Results and discussion. As shown by diagnostics, the proposed load has a significant effect on the body of athlete, thus during the period of performance of the set of exercises athletes burnt off 1079 calories on the average. Moreover, the maximum number of calories amounted to 1251 (Table 1). Consequently, athletes burnt off 31 calories per minute during the training session.

Table 1. Judokas' indices after speed-strength load

 

Indices

Inquiry N

Average

Minimum

Maximum

δ

HR max

20

192.1

186.0

196.5

2.8

HR min

20

174.3

170.0

179.0

2.8

HR avg

20

183.2

179.0

187.3

2.1

Kcal

20

1078.8

987.0

1251.0

61.2

Lactate

20

12.9

11.8

13.9

0.6

SaO2 base

20

92.3

90.6

94.1

1.1

SaO2 min

20

56.5

43.0

76.0

10.3

SaO2 avg

20

83.0

77.0

89.0

4.2

SaO2<88%

20

76.3

69.0

85.0

4.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When analyzing HR (Table 1) during the speed-strength work performance, it can be noted that the average HR equaled 183.2 bpm, which characterizes the load imposed as glycolytic, the more so as the index maximum equaled 187.3 bpm. The maximum HR was equal to 192.1 bpm on the average, the index maximum reached 196.5 bpm. The minimum HR was 174.3 bpm on the average.

The arterial oxygen percent saturation during exercise performance in terms of the base index was 92.3%, the average saturation - 83%, the minimum - 56.5% and the average<88% amounted to 76.3%. Such results testify that the work was performed with evident anoxemia in athletes' body, which corresponds to the glycolytic mode of energy consumption.

As a result of such strenuous work, athletes' average blood lactate concentration amounted to 12.9 mmol/L, with that, the maximum level of lactic acid even increased to 13.9 mmol/L, and the minimum one was registered at the level of 11.8 mmol/L.

Conclusion. The proposed set of exercises develops the speed-strength glycolitic endurance of athletes.

References

  1. Akopyan, A.O. Skorostno-silovaya podgotovka v vidakh sportivnykh edinoborstv (Speed-strength training in martial arts) / A.O. Akopyan, V.A. Pankov, S.A. Astakhov. – Moscow: Sovetskiy sport, 2003. – 48 P.
  2. Ivashchenko, V.V. Nauchno-metodicheskie osobennosti intensivnoy silovoy podgotovki yunykh sambistov 12-14-letnego vozrasta: avtoref. dis. kand. ped. nauk (Scientific and methodical features of intensive strength training of junior sambo wrestlers aged 12-14 years: abstract of Ph.D. thesis); Adyghe State University. - Maikop, 2000. – 21 P.
  3. Lipatnikova, M.A. Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie korrektsii nutritsionnogo statusa bortsov v protsesse razvitiya spetsial'noy vynoslivosti: avtoref. dis. kand. biol. nauk (Physiological basis of correction of nutritional status of fighters in development of special endurance: abstract of Ph.D. thesis; KGAFK (KSAPC). - Krasnodar, 2003. – 23 P.
  4. Pashintsev, V.G. Biologicheskaya model' funktsional'noy podgotovbki dzyudoistov (Biological model of functional training of judokas). – Moscow: Sovetskiy sport, 2007. – 208 P.

Corresponding author: pashincev@mail.ru