Enhancement of Attacking Actions of Qualified Volleyball Players Based on the Use of Psychoregulatory Techniques
St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg
N.V. Lutkova, associate professor, Ph.D.
Yu.M. Makarov, professor, Ph.D.
K.S. Solomenina, postgraduate student
National State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Health named after P.F. Lesgaft, St. Petersburg
Key words: spike in volleyball, attention indicators, emotional stability indicators, efficiency.
Relevance. The specificity of volleyball as a very emotional sport has a certain effect on the development of some aspects of the human psyche: its perception, attention, memory, thinking, ideas, views, emotions, moral and volitional qualities.
Volleyball as a sport game is characterized by a rather high, as compared to other sports, emotional and intellectual intensity. Experts believe, psychological characteristics of a volleyball player's activity are determined by the game rules, the nature of play actions, and the objective characteristics of the competition itself [4, 6, 8, 9, 10]. An in-depth approach to the issue of individualization of the educational-training process is represented in the research work by M.Ya. Kim (1994). Here, the author singles out the psychotactical factor which comprises the player's abilities to timely percept and adequately evaluate game situation, make an immediate decision and precisely implement it in a motor action. As stated in the research papers by various psychologists [1, 2, 7], the main reasons of low efficiency of technical actions are instability, slow attention switching during competitions and the state of increased emotional tension.
It is worth mentioning that psychoregulatory techniques (autogenic and motor imagery training) are covered in literature at length, there is a considerable volume of experimental material on this subject. However, the matter of improvement of attention level and emotional stability in qualified female volleyball players aged 16-17 years for performance of attacking actions during their competitive activity seems to be least investigated. Consequently, the study of the techniques that would facilitate an increase of these indicators in female volleyball players aged 16-17 years is currently one of the most relevant objectives.
The purpose of the study was to improve the training process conducted by female volleyball players aged 16-17 years, intended to enhance attacking actions based on the inclusion of psychoregulatory techniques.
In order to accomplish the purpose in view, the following objectives were set:
1. To determine the efficiency of attacking actions of female volleyball players aged 16-17 years during their competitive activity.
2. To estimate the indicators of their physical fitness, technical, tactical and psychological preparedness.
3. To select psychoregulatory techniques intended to improve the attention and emotional stability indicators for performance of attacking actions, and to estimate their effectiveness.
Materials and methods. The educational experiment involved female volleyball players aged 16-17 years from the group of sports perfection of the Specialized Children and Youth Sports School of the Olympic Reserve "Ekran". At the first stage of the study, there was held a pedagogical monitoring during competitive activity, a questionnaire survey among the coaches, sports-pedagogical testing aimed at determining the indicators of physical fitness, technical and tactical preparedness, and psychological testing. In addition, it is when the psychoregulatory techniques were selected. At the second stage of the study there were conducted: educational experiment; psychological re-testing; pedagogical monitoring during competitive activity intended to determine the efficiency of both an attacking action and a serve.
Results and discussion. Pursuing the first research objective, i.e. determination of the efficiency of attacking actions (a serve, a spike) of female volleyball players during their competitive activity, a total of 10 games were recorded in Group "A" and Group "B" prior to the educational experiment.
The analysis of the results, demonstrated by each group of female volleyball players, and comparison of the group indices resulted in the conclusion that the indicators of efficiency of attacking actions and side-outs during the game in the competitions are statistically significantly different in female volleyball players from Groups "A" and "B". The indicators of efficiency of attacking actions in the groups are 40,2±1,61% and 43,3 ±2,5% accordingly. The indicators of side-outs during the game equal 13,4±1,0% and 13,9±0,8% accordingly.
Pursuing the second research objective, i.e. determination of the indicators of physical fitness, technical, tactical and psychological preparedness of female volleyball players, sports-pedagogical and psychological tests were conducted. The following control exercises (tests) were used: 1. 92m running with change of direction, "herringbone". 2. Standing upward jump off both feet. 3. Standing overhead 1kg medicine ball throw with both hands. 4. Overhand straight serve for accuracy to different zones. 5. Jump serve for accuracy. 6. Straight spike from zone 4 to zone 4-5 (from low pass). 7. Spike with shifting from zone 2 to zone 5, from zone 4 to zone 1 (from overhead pass). 8. Spike, or "flick-back" depending whether there is a block or no block. 9. Team actions: serve receive, second pass from zone 3 to zone 4 or 2 (on instructions) and spike (second pass is performed by a hitter).
The indicators of psychological preparedness were determined using the following tests: 1.
Test of distribution and switching of attention. The indicators of distribution and switching of attention were evaluated basing on the psychological methodology "Digit recognition with distraction". 2. Stress testing. A state of stress was estimated basing on the psychological methodology offered by V.L. Marischuk .
The analysis of the results of the sports-pedagogical testing of physical characteristics suggests that the indicators obtained on completion of 3 control exercises (92m "herringbone" running, standing upward jump off both feet (cm), standing overhead medicine ball throw with both hands (m) do not correspond to the pattern indicators and do not have statistically significant differences in the groups. (The group indices equal 25,7±0,45 and 25,8±0,49; 59,5±2,53 and 59,1±2,03; and 15,1±0,57 accordingly). There are also no statistically significant differences in the group indices of technical preparedness in either of four tests and in the indices of tactical preparedness in two tests, and they meet the program requirements.
The analysis of the results of the psychological testing brings us to the conclusion that the indicators of distribution and switching of attention in Group "A" equal 21 ± 7,11; of emotional tension - 47,8 ± 12,73. These indicators do not match the evaluation criteria of the tests used. In Group "B" the indicators do match these criteria and have statistically significant differences with Group "A" (the indicators of distribution and switching of attention equal 38,33 ± 19,57 and of emotional tension - 75,33 ± 29,8 accordingly).
Pursuing the third research objective, we conducted a questionnaire survey among the coaches. When answering the question: "Which psychoregulatory techniques do you know?" 75% of coaches found difficulty in replying. To the questions: "Do you know how to and do you implement them when teaching and training?", and "Which psychoregulatory techniques would you recommend to eliminate stress among athletes and to improve their attention indicators before and during competitions?" 86% of coaches responded negatively to both questions.
Proceeding further, we selected the psychoregulatory techniques of two directions: autogenic training and motor imagery training.
These psychoregulatory techniques (autogenic training and motor imagery training) were taught at the time allowed for theoretical training, and they were applied prior to the session or during the preparatory part of the volleyball teaching-training session and before competitions.
4 combinations made of 4-7 exercises were performed using the motor imagery training, and they were intended to improve technical and tactical skills basing on muscular regulation, as well as improvement of the indicators of distribution and switching of attention basing on the combined exercises. 4 weeks were allowed for training, the classes were held 7 times a week.
Example: Combination 2: Receiving a serve in zone 4 - passing to a setter in zone 2 - relocating for a spike - spike - catch-up on the rebound of an opponent's block (spotting) - return to attack zone - flick-back to zone 6.
Using the autogenic training, 7- and 5-formula complexes were performed. A total of 4 complexes were learned: the main ones - sedative, consisting of 7 formulas (full) and of 5 formulas (compact); consisting of 5 formulas (after considering 5 main formulas) to be used for completion of a session, and of 7 formulas meant for getting to sleep, as well as upon consideration of 5 main formulas.
3 weeks were given to study and implement the main complex of formulas and the complex to be used for completion of a session, after which the complex meant for getting to sleep was learned. In 1.5 months, instead of 12 formals, a complex of 7 was used (without any preliminary formulas).
To achieve the desired result faster each formula is to be considered 4-6 times, which takes about 2-3 minutes. It takes 30 to 45 minutes to give the first autotraining class with the tentative explanation of theoretical grounds of self-suggestion.
Next, to estimate the efficiency of the selected psychoregulatory techniques used to improve the indicators of distribution and switching of attention and stress we conducted a psychological re-testing and a pedagogical monitoring.
The analysis of the results of the psychological testing right after the educational experiment suggests that the indicators of distribution and switching of attention and stress in the experimental group match the evaluation criteria (the indicators in the group equal 39,27 ± 19,6 and 75,73±30,32 accordingly). These indicators do not have statistically significant differences with the indicators in the control group (the indicators in the control group equal 38,4 ± 19,4 and 75,47 ± 30,05 accordingly).
According to the analysis of the results of the pedagogical monitoring, the indicators of the efficiency of attacking actions in the experimental group equal 43,2 ± 3,27%; of side-outs during the game - 11,67 ± 2,18%. These indicators correspond to the pattern characteristics and do not have statistically significant differences with the indicators in the control group (the indicators in the group equal 42,93 ± 3,17% and 13,87 ± 0,96% accordingly).
Conclusions. The findings of the research suggest the following conclusions:
• The effectiveness of implementation of attacking actions of skilled female volleyball players in Group "A" before the educational experiment does not meet the program requirements and has statistically significant differences with Group "B". The indicators of spike effectiveness in the groups equal 40,2±1,6% and 43,3 ±1,5% accordingly. The indicators of side-outs during the game equal 13,4±1,0% and 13,9±0,8% accordingly.
• Statistically significant inter-group differences in terms of distribution and switching of attention and stress were revealed prior to the educational experiment (the group indices equal 21 ± 7,11 and 38,33 ± 19,57;.47,8 ± 12,73 and 75,33 ± 29,8 accordingly). There were no differences in physical fitness, technical and tactical preparedness between the groups.
- The indices of distribution and switching of attention and emotional stability in female volleyball players aged 16-17 years are to be increased using the psychoregulatory techniques of two directions: 1) autogenic training, and 2) motor imagery training.
- The efficiency of the use of the selected techniques is proved by the findings of the educational experiment. The indicators of the efficiency of attacking actions in the experimental group on completion of the education experiment correspond to the pattern indicators and do not have statistically significant differences with the control group. (The indicators of spike efficiency in the groups equal 43,2 ± 3,27% and 42,93 ± 3,17%; of side-outs during the game: 11,67 ± 2,18% and 13,87 ± 0,96% accordingly).
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