Formation of Culture of Physical Development and Sports Occupations among Young Students in SPBSPU
M.V. Lopatin, professor, Ph.D.
V.P. Suschenko, professor, Dr.Hab.
St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg
Key words: physical culture, sport, distance learning, young students, physical development.
Relevance. Paradoxicality as one of the major problems of modern society is that the experience of successful development of the older generation can not be a prototype (and even an analogue) of the development of the paradigm of formation of the younger generation any more. This can be explained as follows. Firstly, scientific and technological advance and the resulting technospheric distortions of the biosphere irreversibly change the human biological base. Secondly, the avalanche-like absorption of all types of human activities by information and telecommunication technologies involves the individual in a sedentary lifestyle and insufficient motor activity, which objectively reduces the health potential (this fact is of particular concern for children and adolescents). Today, numerous adequate programs to prevent existing trends are being developed. Improvement of students’ training technologies is in the focus of attention, which is reflected in the documents “Educational environment of the Bologna agreement” and the “Worldwide CDIO Initiative (conceive – design – implement - operate)” [1, 2, 4]. In this regard, the unique advantage of the educational environment of the modern polytechnic university, namely the possibility of pre-emptive application of the above mentioned advanced educational technologies for a timely correction of sports and educational programs for physical development of young students, is detected [2,5,6]. At the same time, the inviolability of the emergence principle while coping with any phenomenon defined as a “problem” should be considered. The notion of “problem” includes the uncontested demand for changes in human life. The problem can be overcome by creating necessary conditions. The overcome of problem directly occurs as a super-total, i.e. emergence effect of coordinated solution of the minimal sufficient number of tasks. In this regard, the problem is a natural phenomenon passed from one generation to another by the relay race of social development.
The purpose of the study was to identify the optimal solutions to the problem of insufficient motor activity in the physical development of a modern young man, form constructive approaches to accessible practical solution of the problem.
Materials and methods. The study was carried out as follows: a) the promising combinations of “subject and object” in the existing versions of practical organizational and educational work of the university departments of physical culture and sports in the area of overcoming insufficient overall physical development of students were revealed; b) the approaches to implementation of the project-oriented forms of sports and educational work at the department of physical culture and sports of the technical university were simulated; c) the “junction points” between historically successful forms of domestic development of physical culture and sport among young students and up-to-date advanced technologies “Physical Training” and “Wellness” in the development of the creative combination of educational programs and initiative forms of educational and training work of the department of physical culture and sport of the university were determined.
Results and discussion. According to the many years’ experience of domestic departments of physical culture and sport, the following trinity is successfully implemented in a single educational process: “education”, “training” and “health promotion” of students. Thanks to the knowledge and skills for harmonious development of his body acquired by a student during studies he gets a potential of the culture of physical development for the rest of his life and throughout the whole period of ontogenesis. The concept of development of the department of physical culture and sport of SPbSPU [2, 6-8], in the course of successful deployment of modern forms of the trinity of educational process, conforms the edifice in the sphere of physical culture and sport, that determines the goals, tasks, main activities, phases and measures for their optimization, as well as mechanisms for monitoring the achievement of goals and objectives in the run-up to 2018 , with the legal framework (the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal Law No. 273-FZ of December 29, 2012 “On education in the Russian Federation”, the Federal Law No. 329-FZ of December 4, 2007 “On physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation”, the federal laws “The strategy of development of physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation until 2020” (approved by the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation on August 7, 2009) and “The strategy of social development of education in the Russian Federation until 2020” (adopted on March 28, 2008), the Presidential Decree of the Russian Federation No. 172 of March 24, 2014 “On the All-Russia physical culture and the sports complex “Ready for labor and defence” (GTO)”, and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation) [2, 4-6].
The club forms of physical culture and sports activities have been traditionally implemented both within the department educational work at the university and in the All-Union sports clubs.
The sports club (SC) at Polytechnic Institute was opened in 1947, in execution of the order of AUCCTU Secretariat. It was restructured from the voluntary sports society (DSO) department “Science” and was the fourth students’ sports club in Leningrad. Already then the SC “Politekhnik” (Polytechnician) was distinguished not only by the systematic work on improving higher sports skills of student-athletes, but also providing educational and training process of pupils of the children’s and youth sports school which functioned under the club [2, 3]. Progressive forms of sports and educational work are being successfully developed in the SC “Politekhnik” within the home department and afield.
Based on the accumulated experience, three stable forms of the students’ clubs are distinguished: as an independent public organization, as an independent department of the university and as a financially independent subdivision of the department. The first form can be optimal in the future . However, in the recent normative regulations particular attention is paid to the development of those forms of work of the sports club, as a part of the training and educational work of the department, where education and harmonious personality development are priority aspects, along with sport activities, and are funded separately [2, 5, 6]. It should be emphasized that the SC “Politekhnik” successfully works in this area. High requirements for physical and psychological qualities of future specialists necessitate the participation of the SC “Politekhnik” in the individualization of the development of applied professional physical training of students. The latter should be based on those sports that are not only aimed at forming psychophysical qualities of graduates needed for future work, but also provide advanced growth of general fitness. This approach helps to reveal the adequacy of personally developed qualities which are important for professional work and sport. This is greatly promoted also by the skills of sport and educational and medicobiological self-control, mastered when combining sport training and sports research forms of meso- and macrocycles of training [2, 5-8].
Particular attention should be paid to those forms of inter-department and inter-university integration of initiatives on sport and educational work of the SC “Politekhnik”, that are aimed at the project-oriented development of students of the polytechnic university. The fundamentals of the Worldwide CDIO Initiative (conceive – design – implement - operate, version 2.0 ) were incorporated into the work program of the laboratory “Bioadaptive engineering” newly organized at the SC “Politekhnik”. Based on the engineering technology of interactively controlled gadgets designed and developed by students, the laboratory plans: to facilitate restoring the proper level of individual physical development of young students by means of adaptive algorithms; to consider as the project “start-up” the intensive development of existing ones and creation of new forms of simultaneous learning of a student by the programs of multidisciplinary technical departments and sport subdivisions of the department of physical culture and sport of SPbSPU both at classes and remotely; this is an analogue of the inter-university cooperation of higher schools incorporated in the Bologna education environment [1, 2, 4-7].
Conclusions. Hence, we believe the priorities in the development of the Concept of long-term development of the department of physical culture and sport in the university are as follows:
1. Implementation (as a subject of educational activity) of achievements of the domestic experience of development of physical culture and sport of young students in the system of provision of educational services of the Bologna agreement.
2. Formation and consolidation (as an object) in stable forms of life of students' knowledge and skills to create their own lifestyle, which includes the need for physical activity, promotion and development of the health potential.
3. Identification and provision of an individual educational environment of development of students with physical endowments to promote them in elite sport as athletes and sports managers.
All this will contribute to bachelors' and masters' training in the areas: "Management of Physical Culture and Sport", "Marketing of sports events", "Management of individual forms of physical development of the population", "Management of psychophysical training in physical culture and sport", "Management of telemetry monitoring of physical working capacity in fitness and sport" (as the second higher education).
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