Physical Education and Sports Work of Applied Military Orientation of Young Students in the Volgograd Region
A.A. Popkov, candidate
Volgograd State University, Volgograd
Key words: conscript, physical education and sports work, applied military training, patriotic education.
Introduction. The current situation in the field of training of young people for military service has a number of negative factors: decline of health status, physical development and physical fitness among the majority of young people, lack of a federal system of training for military service, insufficient development of applied military and technical kinds of sport [1, 3].
According to the Russian Defense Ministry, 75% of conscripts do not fulfill the regulatory requirements on physical training provided for soldiers of the first year of service in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Nowadays, the requirements for the level of physical fitness of students of institutions of general education generally are not conjugated with the standards of physical fitness of military men both in a set of tests and the level of assessment characteristics. The process of applied military physical training for military service is activated mainly at the age of 16-17 years, and for a small contingent of the involved. There is a need to develop conceptual approaches to balanced interagency system of physical training of future defenders of Motherland .
The purpose of the present study was to design and experimentally justify and introduce the model of applied military physical training of young pre-conscription and conscription trainees for military service.
Results and discussion. Two long-term regional target programmes “Patriotic education of citizens” for 2007-2010, 2010-2011 and 2012-2015, and “Youth pre-conscription training” for 2010-2012 are the main regional acts which regulate the physical education and sports work aimed at applied military training in the Volgograd region. The common purpose of both programmes is the formation of an integrated system of patriotic and military-patriotic physical education of the citizens residing in the Volgograd region.
Together with such organizations specialized in pre-conscription and conscription physical education of young people as departments of the Russian Defence Sports and Techniques Organization (ROSTO) of the Voluntary Association for Assistance to Army, Aviation and Fleet (DOSAAF), the problem is being actively also by various executive authorities responsible for the supervision of physical education and sports activities with children and young people.
At the regional level the initiative comes from the military commissariat of the Volgograd region: subordinate regional military commissariats send to the regional departments of the Russian Defence Sports and Techniques Organization (ROSTO) of the Voluntary Association for Assistance to Army, Aviation and Fleet (DOSAAF) their inquiries about pre-conscription physical training in certain military occupational specialty. Besides, the military commissariats organize field camps for pre-conscription trainees.
In the frames of the government of the Volgograd region, the pre-coscription physical training of young people is of interest to the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Sports and Tourism, the Ministry on Nationality and Cossack Affairs and the Committee on Youth Affairs.
Two of the authorities mentioned above have subordinate institutions whose statutes include work aimed at the enhancement of the system of military-patriotic education and pre-conscription physical training of young people. These institutions are the state public organization “Volgograd Regional Patriotic Center” (GKU VO “Volgogradpatriottsentr”) supervised by the Committee on Youth Affairs, and the state budget department “Volgograd Regional Centre for Cossack spiritual, moral, physical and patriotic education” (GBU “Cossack centre”) subordinated to the Ministry on Nationality and Cossack Affairs. Exactly these institutions together with non-governmental organizations carry out regional activities for the pre-conscription youth, such as military-patriotic and military sports games, contest festivals, defence sports camps. It is worthwhile to mention that some of these events are organized with the participation of the Ministry of Education, and more seldom of the Ministry of Sports and Tourism.
The work in the sphere of pre-conscription physical training is coordinated locally by the municipal authorities for education, youth affairs, physical education and sport, as well as the district and village cossack communities. The on-site authorities organize military-patriotic and military sports zone, district or municipal events.
The work aimed at young men’s preparation for military service is carried out in educational institutions (at physical education and basic safety classes, in school sports groups), in institutions of further education, municipal sports and fitness and cossack centers where military-patriotic clubs and sports classes are operating.
Each organization has its own programmes and plans of work concerning the pre-conscription youth. A particular emphasis is placed on physical training of pre-conscription young people. In early 2012 42 military-patriotic associations attended by more than 2 thousand young people aged 14-17 years were registered in the Volgograd region. Military-patriotic clubs working in extracurricular time have a rather wide range of capabilities in the organization of pupils’ pre-conscription physical training. The clubs combine in their educational space both applied military and physical training, and enable to solve the problems of spiritual and physical development of young people.
The 132-hour programme of the military-patriotic club “Red Carnation” that functions under the municipal educational institution “Primorsky secondary school named after Hero of the Soviet Union P.A. Semenov, located in Bykovsky municipal district of the Volgograd region, contains the following courses:
– fundamentals of military service (16 school hours);
– marching drill (16 school hours);
– range practice (16 school hours);
– tactical training (6 school hours)
– tourist training (10 school hours);
– physical training (33 school hours);
– health care training (12 school hours);
– civil defence (6 school hours);
– military pages of the history of Russia (15 school hours).
This military-patriotic club carries out heroic and patriotic events: celebration of memorable dates of the history of the Russian Federation, Memorial watch keeping at historical military memorials, work with veterans, and inquiring into the lives of the heroes of the Great Patriotic War. Therefore, the club activities fully meet the objectives of pre-conscription physical training and military-patriotic education.
The military-patriotic clubs of the Volgograd region vary in specialization, preparing young people for the service in different corps. The club activities, including applied military and physical training of teenagers, are constructed to suit personal psychological features of pupils in view of club material and technical facilities, teaching capabilities of educational personnel.
The administrative authorities work on the organization of pre-conscription training of young people in the Volgograd region in the following four directions:
1. Development of the system of military-patriotic and defence sports games and contests.
This activity is aimed at the involvement of young people of various ages into regional games and contests. These events are organized with participation of youth non-governmental organizations, state authorities and their subordinate institutions which enhance the quality of staging of events and provide the involvement of necessary personell. Today the Volgograd region posesses well-tested procedures of staging military-patriotic games and contests which are organized with active participation of military units, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, Center for Disaster Medicine, and military commissariats. The regional contests and games are characterized by the system approach developing both in vertical and horizontal directions; these events consist of school, district, municipal, and regional stages, every stage being a qualifying round for the next one.
The number of participating municipal units and teams increases. While in 2000 only 5 teams from Volgograd took part in the military-patriotic contest “Soldat” (Soldier), in 2011 the number of teams participating in its regional stage increased to 31. The most large-scale contest was in 2009 when 35 teams from 29 municipal units took part in it. This contest is carried out among the 14-17 year old pupils of military-patriotic clubs and associations.
Starting from 2004, the regional military-patriotic games “Bratishka” (Brother) are carried out in the Volgograd region for young people who get trained by the programmes of training for service in the Special Forces, airborne troops, and troops of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Two classes of teams take part in these games: 14-17 year olds and 18-27 year olds.
The similar events aimed at the pre-conscription physical training include field training and the military-patriotic game “Shturm” (Assault) carried out among the pre-conscription young people of Cossack communities, young Cossacks’ visits to military units, meetings with military servicemen.
The 11-14 year old schoolboys take part in the game “Zarnitsa”, 15-16 year old ones – in the game “Orlenok”. The pupils of institutions of primary vocational education take part in the game “Doprizyvnik” (Pre-conscript). The contest “Prizyvnik” (Conscript) is arranged for the 19-27 year old countryside people.
These activities have yielded the success of the Volgograd region teams in the All-Russian final of the competition “Ravnenie na Pobedu” (Alignment to the Victory). For example, the winner of the regional contenst “Soldat” (Soldier), the team “Veter” (Wind) of Lenin district, won the first team place at the federal level in 2008.
2. Support and development of military-patriotic clubs and associations.
The leaders of military-patriotic clubs attend annual training workshops, seminars and meetings with master classes and trainings and exchange experience. The clubs participate in competitions for grants that help them to enhance the material and technical basis.
3. Carrying out specialized defence sports camps.
The programmes and methodology of organization and conduct of specialized defence sports camps aimed at physical education of pre-conscripts, such as “Patriot” (Patriot), “Postovets” (Man on point duty), “Shturm” (Assault), “Zvezda” (Star), “Neprikosnovenny Zapas” (Emergency Store), “Yuny Spasatel” (Young Rescuer) are being implemented in the Volgograd region. The camp program includes a wide range of activities forming the pattern of military service, including theoretical and practical classes in range, physical and tactical training, mastering of hand-to-hand fighting techniques, military and sports quick marches, marches, basic mountaineering on a stationary climbing wall, paintball and creative events and contests. The applied military physical training classes are organized by officers and experts from military units, instructors of military-patriotic clubs and trainers in specific sports.
Only in 2009 730 persons enhaced their physical fitness level in the summer defence and sports camps. In 2011 this figure decreased due to reduced funding from the regional budget. The work aimed at advanced training and methodological support of the teaching personnel of defence sports camps is fulfilled in autumn and winter.
4. Development of applied and technical sports.
The state institution Aviation sports club “Yuny Yastreb” (Young Hawk) established in 2003 carries out educational and sports activities of young athletes (parachuting and flight training), organizes sports competitions and contests for students and pupils. The regional competitions on shooting, paintball, football, volleyball and cross-regional sports events of applied military orientation, involving the clubs from Astrakhan, Rostov-on-Don, Vladikavkaz, are held on the basis of the club. The team of the state institution Aviation sports club “Yuny Yastreb” took the 2nd place in the South Russian Championship and participated in the Russian Championship. The club contains 25 educational groups which include 350 members training by the programme of initial parachute training; two groups of skydiving athletes are functioning. The club members have accomplished about 3 thousand parachute jumps; parachute jumpers of mass sports categories and masters of sports of Russia are being continuously trained.
Nowadays, the work on the organization of youth pre-conscription physical training in the region is complicated by the lack of close interaction between interested structures and of a unified concept of all actions and educational programme. There is no completed system of applied military physical training that would engage local self-government, educational and further education institutions, ROSTO (DOSAAF) offices, military commissariats. There is no single coordinating center, an inferior and often unsatisfactory state of the physical and sports base of the majority of secondary schools, insufficient performance of physical education teachers in the subject “Pre-conscription physical training” and low methodological support of teaching this subject. In the current socio-economic conditions health, physical education and sports events with applied military orientation do not provide the improvement of pre-conscripts’ physical state, physical fitness level and state of health. As a result, the pre-conscription and conscription youth do not meet many requirements for their physical fitness level.
For example, in accordance with the paragraph 7 of the decree №384 (March 25, 2010) of the head of the Volgograd region “On holding the next conscription of citizens born in 1983-1992 in April-June 2010“, the level of physical fitness of the conscripts directed to military service in spring 2010 was examined by the Committee on Youth Affairs and the military commissariat of the Volgograd region according to the standards of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. 175 conscripts were examined and 119 of them had unsatisfactory results in pull-ups and 100 meter run tests.
Every year the conscription statistics becomes increasingly alarming, there are virtually no athletes in the Russian army: only 3,0 % of conscripts are first class athletes, candidates for master of sports or masters of sports of Russia. The situation is caused by the fact that little attention is paid to the problem of sports training of the rising generation in general. To solve it one is to focus on physical development and physical training of pre-conscript young people, cultivation of healthy life culture among youth, revision of the main regional acts oriented at the fulfillment of pre-conscription physical training. Physical education and sports activities that would involve the entire contingent of pre-conscription youth, not just teenagers consciously seeking to participate in military-patriotic activities, are needed.
Conclusions. Applied military sports classes have a positive impact on the level of physical fitness of young pre-conscription and conscription trainees. There was marked an insufficient level of the propaganda work on the formation of physical culture of a pre-conscription trainee in institutions of general education of Volgograd and the Volgograd region. Only 8,8% of pre-conscription trainees took a full course of pre-conscription physical training in conditions of training camps and patriotic clubs. Only a third of conscription trainees are fit for military service.
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