The influence of psychofunctional features on the state of the musculoskeletal system of biathletes


PhD, Associate Professor L.E. Ignatieva1
A.A. Kunaeva1
1Mordovian State Pedagogical University named after M.E. Evseviev, Saransk

Keywords: biathlon, training process, functional brain asymmetry, motor dominance, motor dynamic stereotype, muscle imbalance, posture, Psychotest technologies, InBody, DIERS Formetric 4D.

Introduction. The specifics of motor actions in biathlon presupposes the construction of a training process based on taking into account the functional asymmetry of the brain and motor dominance as the basis for injury prevention, prolonging sports longevity and improving the performance of an athlete [1]. The organization of this activity involves conducting monitoring studies based on innovative technologies at all stages of athlete training. In this regard, the actual problem of biathlon is the selection of technologies and organizational and methodological support of monitoring [2].
The aim of the study is to assess the prospects of Psychotest, InBody, DIERS Formetric 4D technologies in monitoring diagnostics of motor dominance, muscle imbalance and disorders of the musculoskeletal system of biathletes.
Methodology and organization of the study. 36 biathletes participated in the experiment (20 – masters or candidates for masters of sports (MS, CMS), 16 – I adult category (IVR)). The features of functional asymmetry of the brain and motor dominance (Neurosoft Psychotest), lean mass by segments and body mass balance (InBody), posture of athletes (DIERS Formetric 4D) were studied.
The results of the study and their discussion. The study of the motor organization of biathletes of different qualifications revealed 31% of left-lateral IVR athletes and 25% of MS and CMS. The rest have a right-lateral organization or are ambidextrous. All athletes use a right-handed rifle, which implies adaptation to the manipulation of the inconvenient side of a significant part of them.
The analysis of muscle balance revealed 20% of athletes (25% IVR, 15% MS and CMS) having an imbalance between the right and left arms, upper and lower halves of the body. Diagnosis of posture has shown that muscle imbalance does not always accompany its violation. It was revealed that 31% of IVR have the 1st degree of scoliosis (angle 6-10 °), 63% – the 2nd degree (angle 12-19 °). Among MS and CMS, 20% had grade 1 scoliosis (angle 8-10°), 25% had grade 2 scoliosis (angle 14-24°).
When identifying the causes of a large number of scoliotic disorders, the nature of sports injuries received by athletes was analyzed. Injuries of the musculoskeletal system have 75% of MS and CMS and 38% of IVR. When comparing the type of motor dominance, muscle imbalance and the nature of injuries individually, the main causes of scoliosis are identified:
1. The congenital type of brain asymmetry assumes the dominance of the leading limbs when performing cyclic movements. Ignoring individual characteristics leads to the formation of a muscular imbalance towards the leading limbs, which leads to posture disorders.
2. Preferential work with dominant limbs is fraught with their injury, which leads to a thrifty attitude on the part of the athlete and increased loads on the ignorant side. The new dynamic stereotype also leads to deformation of the vertebral column.
3. Injuries of ignorant limbs lead to an increase in the load on the leading side, which further aggravates the existing violations.
Conclusion. Motor dominance in sports activity is the cause of muscle imbalance, posture disorders and injury of athletes. In this regard, it is necessary to monitor disorders of the musculoskeletal system of biathletes, which can be carried out comprehensively using Psychotest, InBody, DIERS Formetric 4D technologies. Monitoring data is important to use for the prevention and correction of muscle imbalance, motor dynamic stereotype and posture disorders.
The work was carried out within the framework of a grant for conducting research in priority areas of scientific activity of partner universities in network interaction (Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla and Mordovian State Pedagogical University named after M. E. Evsevieva) on the topic "Improving the training process of biathletes based on motor dominance".


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