The Status and Perspective of Development of Sport in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Фотографии: 

K.К. Zakir’yanov, professor, Dr.Hab.
I.F. Andruschishin, professor, Dr.Hab.
А.N. Makogonov, professor, Dr.Hab.
Kazakh academy of sport and tourism, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Key words: sport system, coach’s questionnaire, problem components, system elements, operating efficiency.

Introduction. Sport (sports system) is an integral system component of the society as a global social system and conforms to all the rules that are followed by the system. Efficiency of the sports system depends on the operation of each of its subsystem components and elements. If one of the system elements is operating inappropriately, it will certainly affect the efficiency of the whole system [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Its key components are the subsystems of qualification, sports training, competition, scientific and methodological support, sports facilities and simulators, inventory, equipment, determined by actions of elite trainers and experts, mass media and stable financing. The study contains an analysis of the status and operating efficiency of the present sports system in the Republic of Kazakhstan. This is due to the need for its further improvement with the aim of improving the quality of results of Kazakhstan athletes in big international competitions and, first of all, in the Olympic games. The results of London Olympic games 2012 should be the starting point in further enhancing of sports achievements.

Materials and methods. A special questionnaire was developed for studies, including 16 assertions defining the allocated subsystem components and elements of the sports system. Efficiency of each of the system components or elements was assessed in a questionnaire in the 100-mm line, where trainers were to mark their opinion with an "X". The closer to the left side of the line was the trainer's mark, the lower was the efficiency of the given component and vice versa. The study was anonymous.

The questionnaire involved representatives of 25 sports, divided into three groups: "playing sports (ps)", "martial arts (ma)" and "individual sports (is)". We interviewed 126 trainers: 35 persons - representatives of playing sports; 30 persons - representatives of martial arts and 61 persons - individual sports, including 22 honored trainers of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 58 elite trainers; 20 trainers of the first category, 26 trainers of the second category and 26 without category. Trainers were virtually from all regions of our Republic, but, nevertheless, most of all from Almaty. The average age of trainers was 48,7 years. The age range varied from 21 to 76 years. The work experience of trainers was 22,8 years on the average. The trainers, who filled out questionnaires, work with skilled athletes, mostly with various Republic national teams in different sports, including national ones.

As a matter of convenience, quantitative parameters obtained in millimeters were converted to percent in a one-to-one relationship (1 mm was equivalent to 1%), so the processed data presented in Table 1, are expressed in percent. During the data processing the mean percentage () for each component and overall averages (Xо) were calculated for all components and elements of the system. The standard deviation characterizing the homogeneity or the heterogeneity of sample parameters (S - components and So - general) and coefficients of variation (V - components Vo - general), reflecting the degree of variability of the standard deviation as a percentage, were calculated similarly. Furthermore, same statistical indicators were calculated for each group of sports. The differences between the indicators were detected using the Fisher F-test.

Results. Proceeding from Table 1 and Figure 1, the operating efficiency of the entire sport system comprises о = 44,8%. Thus, in accordance with the statistic norms, effectiveness of the sport system can be evaluated within the average level but with a high level of variability, as proved by the value of the standard deviation (So = 16,4). In our case, the coefficient of the standard deviation variation is Vо = 37,6%, which is almost 2 times higher than the statistic norm (20%). These indicators of the standard deviation and the variation coefficient characterize not only the effectiveness of work of various subsystem components and elements, but also the instability of work of the sport system as a whole.

Table 1. Indicators of operating effectiveness of the most significant components of the sport system

Statements (components)

All sports

X

V

1

The current effectiveness of initial qualification system

38,0

27,4

72,1

2

Systematic character of training process

60,3

26,6

44,1

3

Compliance of the training methodology with the modern requirements

54,3

27,4

50,5

4

Presence (lack) of event calendar

84,8

18,2

21,5

5

Implementation of event calendar

69,0

25,5

37,0

6

Operation of the recovery and rehabilitation system

30,3

23,7

78,2

7

Availability of elite trainer staff

37,7

25,5

67,6

8

Effectiveness of scientific and methodological support

30,2

24,7

81,8

9

Available sports facilities

28,3

25,7

90,8

10

Compliance of sports facilities with the modern training requirements

33,1

29,0

87,6

11

Sufficiency of modern training simulators and devices

29,9

27,1

90,6

12

Efficiency of using training simulators and devices

31,9

25,3

79,3

13

Supply of sports equipment

45,1

29,2

64,7

14

Promotion and advertising of sports

37,8

28,8

76,2

15

Financial provision of training process

50,7

29,0

57,2

16

Financing of training camps and competitions

55,3

27,9

50,5

44,8

26,3

65,6

So

16,4

2,74

-

Vо 

36,7

 -

Considering the individual components, it is easy to notice that the presence of a calendar of sports events is most appreciated - 84.8%. At the same time, 15.2 % of cases indicate the lack of the calendar, without which a sports institution cannot fully operate.

The implementation of the event calendar is second in effectiveness - 69 %. It indicates a formal or an informal approach to its development. The better the calendar is implemented, the more managers and trainers are interested in it. It should be noted that it is impossible to identify how well the calendar is implemented because the appropriateness of participating in a particular competition is quite subjective and largely depends on the trainer’s intuition.

The systematic character of the training process is next in respect to effectiveness – 60,3 %, followed by practically equally expressed components: “financing of training camps and competitions"- 55,3% and "compliance of the training methodology with the modern requirements"- 54,3 %. The stated components are an original foundation in the sport system and the expressiveness of all other components depends on them to the fullest extent.

The most problem components of the sports system are the lack of modern sports facilities (28,3%); modern training simulators (29,9%); especially in competitive and individual sports; extremely low level of the scientific and methodological support of the training process and competitive activity and low efficiency of the rehabilitation system.

The most problematic components of the sport system are: available sports facilities (28,3%); modern training simulators and devices (29,9%), scientific and methodological support (30,2%); operation of the recovery and rehabilitation system (30,3 %); efficiency of using training simulators and devices (31,9 %) and compliance of sports facilities with the modern training requirements (33,1%). The differences in opinions on these components are V = 84,7% on the average, which is 4 times higher than the standard level of variability.

In other words, trainers, in fact, indicate the lack of modern sports facilities, training simulators and devices, as well as scientific support of the training process and system of rehabilitation measures. It especially concerns the initial phase of sports classes and the phase of specialization. In the overwhelming majority this assessment is given by trainers with less than 10 years of working experience. This fact indicates that in the absence of own sports base in specialized children sports schools, young trainers have to use the worst regarding efficiency time (either before 8.00 am or after 19.00 pm) in gyms of municipal comprehensive schools, where classes are held usually in two shifts. In addition, the congestion of gyms in municipal schools is aggravated by the fact that in accordance with the law, they should conduct three physical education lessons a week with pupils. Therefore, physical education teachers have to refuse to provide time for trainers of specialized children sport schools. Thus, trainers actually imitate training activities, running from one place to another with their students. It is clear that without regular and systematic training, one cannot rely on the substantial growth of sports skills and sports results.

This problem has another side. If there is a sports facility and it can provide the leasehold time to conduct a training session, it costs so much that most of parents are not able to pay for the classes of their child in a sports section. Even the national teams of the KR often cannot find enough money to pay for the lease of a gym. Today our sports facilities are so expensive that in some cases it is cheaper for our athletes to train at facilities abroad than in their own country, where the quality of services is significantly worse than abroad. The plain evidence is the actually empty Sports Palace in Almaty, the ski complex "Chimbulak", the ski stadium "Akbulak" etc. They are practically inaccessible for a systematic training process.

These factors result in the constant shortage of elite athletes, especially in playing sports, which leads to the fact that we are starting to attract legionaries from different countries, paying for their services according to international standards. But it would be better to use the money we have spent for this for the construction of complex training sports facilities. In addition, the involvement of legionnaires reduces the motivation of domestic athletes and makes them unsure of their own abilities. It should also be noted that almost all of the stipulated components reflect the material factors of the sport system.

There is a fairly broad diversity of trainers’ opinions regarding the rest of the components that occupy an intermediate position (the mean variation coefficient - 67.6 %). Let us take, for example, promotion and advertising of sports (Vo = 76.2%). Here the range of opinion is stipulated by the unequal importance and popularity of various sports for our Republic.

Summing up the analysis of the operating efficiency of the whole system of sports activity one can state that, all in all, its most problem components are material base (lack of modern sports facilities and training simulators, scientific and methodological support and recovery and rehabilitation system.

Considering in a similar context the group of sports (Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 4) it should be noted that, despite their compliance with the general trends in expression of the level of efficiency, sometimes they are very different from each other in some components.

Table 2. Indicators of operating effectiveness of the most important components for different sports groups           

Statements (components)

Playing sports

Martial arts

Individual sports

Xps

Sps 

Vps

Xma

Sma 

Vma

Xin

Sin 

Vin

1

Efficiency of the current system of initial qualification

37,6

22,9

60,9

35,6

26,8

75,3

39,4

29,7

75,4

2

Systematic character of training process

52,7

24,6

46,7

58,5

22,9

39,1

65,4

28,0

42,8

3

Compliance of the training methodology with the modern requirements

49,3

25,1

50,9

55,0

24,2

44,0

56,8

29,5

51,9

4

Presence (lack) of event calendar

80,7

25,9

32,1

85,6

12,6

14,7

86,7

14,2

16,4

5

Implementation of event calendar

68,8

26,1

37,9

68,0

23,8

35,0

69,5

25,6

36,8

6

Operation of the recovery and rehabilitation system

28,8

22,2

77,1

33,9

22,4

66,1

29,5

24,7

83,7

7

Availability of elite trainer staff

35,9

23,1

64,3

42,7

22,5

52,7

36,2

27,6

76,2

8

Effectiveness of scientific and methodological support

28,7

20,9

72,8

32,6

25,3

77,6

29,8

26,0

87,2

9

Available sports facilities

26,1

21,6

82,8

33,7

25,4

75,4

26,9

27,4

101,9

10

Adequacy of sports facilities to modern training requirements

33,9

28,9

85,3

38,4

28,7

74,7

30,0

28,5

95,0

11

Sufficiency of modern training simulators and devices

38,8

30,6

78,9

36,2

25,1

69,3

21,7

22,9

105,5

12

Efficiency of using training simulators and devices

36,8

25,5

69,3

37,1

24,5

66,0

26,5

24,3

91,7

13

Supply of sports equipment

54,3

29,6

54,5

45,9

29,0

63,2

39,5

27,5

69,6

14

Promotion and advertising of sports

38,5

25,7

66,8

47,1

30,3

64,3

32,9

28,3

86,0

15

Financial provision of training process

47,1

30,8

65,4

59,2

26,8

45,3

48,5

28,0

57,7

16

Financing of training camps and competitions

48,2

31,0

64,3

64,9

21,3

32,8

54,6

27,4

50,2

X

44,1

25,9

63,1

48,4

24,5

56,0

43,4

26,2

70,5

S

14,8

3,37

 

15,4

4,06

 

18,5

3,7

 

33,6

 

 

31,8

 

 

42,6

 

 

So, if we take the most problematic components (operation of the recovery and rehabilitation system, scientific and methodological support, available sports facilities), here playing sports are in the worst situation compared to martial arts and individual sports. Probably it is no accident that on the London Olympics we did not have a single playing team and medals were won only by representatives of martial arts and individual sports.

It is well known that the most prestigious Olympic medals considered medals won in team sports, because team sports are the main indicators of the level of development of sport in the country.

The situation with the components such as "financial provision of training process" and "financing of training camps and competitions" is even more complicated for team sports.

In general, financial provision of sports games is worse (on the average - 47.6 %) than in individual sports (on the average - 49%) and martial arts (on the average - 62 %). If we compare individual components, there was detected a significant statistical superiority of martial arts (ma = 64,9%) over playing sports (ps = 48,2%) and financing of training camps and competitions (Fst = 1,60 < Ff = 2,12; P < 0,01) and over individual sports (= 43,4%), as well as financing of training camps and competitions (Fst = 1,60 < Ff = 1,65; P < 0,05). Training camps and competitions in individual sports are in the worst situation in respect to financing. Martial arts are most secured in this component.

There have not been found any statistical differences in the financial provision of training process, however, here there is also a quite clear trend for martial arts to be most secured (ma = 59,2%) and team sports to be the least funded (ps = 47,1%). Individual sports take an intermediate position in = 54,6%).

Noteworthy is the fact of failure of modern sports simulators (in = 21,7%) and low efficiency of their use (in = 26,5%) in individual sports. Furthermore, in comparison with other groups of sports in individual sports the facilities available hardly meet the modern training requirements. This primarily concerns track and field athletics. Currently, the republic lacks indoor and outdoor track and field stadiums and arenas of the international level where international competitions could be held. The remaining components of the system in all groups of sports are within the common average value (о = 44,8%), and, respectively, according to trainers, do not cause, on the one hand, any concerns, but on the other hand, do not make us feel enthusiastic about them.

Thus, in respect to groups of sports one can make the following conclusions:

- Virtually all components of the sports system are more pronounced in martial arts (ma = 48,4%), indicating a better organization in this group of sports. This is due to more significant financial provision, as compared to other groups of sports.

- Individual sports are in the worst situation in almost all components. The lack of sports facilities, modern training simulators and devices and the effectiveness of their use cause particular concern.

- Playing sports are the least financed - 47,6%, the situation is slightly better in individual sports - 49 % and significantly better in martial arts - 62%. Training camps and competitions in individual sports are the least secured - 43,4%.

Conclusions.

1. The sports system operates with average efficiency and is mainly characterized by high variation and financial instability.

2. The most problem components of the sports system are the lack of modern sports facilities and training simulators, especially in competitive and individual sports; extremely low level of the scientific and methodological support of the training process and competitive activity and low efficiency of the rehabilitation system.

 

References

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Author’s contacts: ifandru2@mail.ru