Organization of Physical Culture and Sport in Classic University

Фотографии: 

S.Sh. Namozova, associate professor
Sh.Z. Khubbiev, professor, Dr.Hab.
St.Petersburg state university, St.Petersburg

Key words: physical culture and sport, block-modular organization of physical culture and sport, scoring-rating system of competence management, university sport, sports club, research club, easy sport.

Introduction. The development of physical culture and university sport and the formation of the youth healthy lifestyle are priorities of the youth policy in modern Russia [1]. It corresponds with the decision of the President of Russia to create the Association of university sports clubs. Federal state educational standards of the third generation play an important role in the implementation of initiatives for the establishment of sports clubs and the development of university sport. However the "Physical culture" section of these standards is not developed enough in its theoretical and technological aspects, that significantly limits the abilities of improving students’ adaptive potential and health. By the way, nowadays it is important to ensure the theoretical and technological succession between schoolchildren and university curricula on physical education in the basic aspects of physical culture and sport, to increase the adaptive potential and promote health of schoolchildren. Incidentally, succession between the components of the system of physical culture and sport, associated with preschool, general secondary, secondary technical school, higher professional, additional and postgraduate professional education, is especially important today.

Materials and methods. The research methods involved theoretical analysis and generalization, questionnaire, observation, modelling and educational experiment. The research was based in St. Petersburg State University. The approbation of the model of block-modular organization of physical culture and sport is planned for the four-year bachelor training cycle, since 2011. The monitoring and testing of all the 1st and 2nd year students are provided during the first and second year of approbation, later - the selective monitoring and the all students testing are assumed.

Results and discussion. Proceeding from the studies, nowadays it is especially important to focus on promotion of students' health. Students experience serious emotional and mental overloads during their studies especially during examinations; they need to "splash out" all their knowledge acquired within 6-12 months of the study within 3-4 weeks. Such trials, during the long-term cycle of education, significantly influence student’s body functions and mind. Ultimately, the student acquires a "bunch of diseases" [2, 3, 4, 5]. At the same time, students’ physical activity and lifestyle are not used sufficiently as important factors of health promotion. Hence, the task of university sport - to exclude the possibility of such irreversible negative consequences.

That's why higher educational institutions must provide students with regular sport exercises conducive to formation of health culture. It must be the main line of the programs of university sport and the sports clubs activities. During the long-term educational cycle students must learn how to improve their adaptive potential on their own and fully realize it, in the process of future professional activity, with the help of physical culture and sport.

It is obvious, that due to the absence of such conditions, the amount of students of the basic branch decreases with each year, and the amount of students with special medical conditions increases [6, 7.8].

The present level of the physical education and sports motivation of students is low, because of the falling interest to traditional forms of organization of sports exercises. Students’ needs, as well as the domestic and international practical and scientific experience in the sphere of university sport, are taken into consideration insufficiently. Not all of the educational institutions have optimal conditions for students to be involved in learning the values ​​of physical culture and sport. For example, the effective system motivating students for physical activity is not developed. It is about creating a sports club - a mechanism of development of university sport. With the help of it, sports classes will be accessible for students and they will be able to systematically participate in sports competitions, organize and stage them; so that they were ready to use physical exercises independently.

The analysis of domestic and international experience allows to conclude that block-modular and scoring-rating technologies are the most appropriate for organizing the physical culture and sports in higher educational institutions according to federal state educational standards of higher professional education (FSES HPE) of the third generation [9;10;11;12;13; 14, 24,25; 26;29].

The use of these technologies hasn't yet been brought to perfection and its innovative potential for improving university sport hasn't been fully revealed and realized. In addition, many experts and teachers don't understand properly the principal difference of the physical culture status according to FSES HPE [25]. So today there is a necessity of a modern organization model of physical culture and sport in higher educational institutions. However, according to art. 24 p. 2 of the new Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" there are such institutions as "Federal University”, http://moeobrazovanie.ru/universitet.html “National Research University", as well as other universities, academies and institutes. At the same time, according to art. 24 p.1 of the same law Lomonosov MSU and St.Petersburg State University are the leading classical universities of the Russian Federation with the special legal status [27]. The purpose of this article was to present a model of physical culture and sport in St.Petersburg State University.

While developing this model the experience of Russian universities and the experience of one of the best, according to international rating, Cambridge University was taken into account. It enabled to determine the strong points of the modernization of physical culture and sport in the St.Petersburg State University and of the system formation of its sport club and approaches to development of university sport [28, 29]. The "Work curriculum on physical culture and sport" underlies the model of organization of physical culture and sport in St.Petersburg State University. When developing it we relied on the competency building and differentiated approaches to student education. The last one implies the consideration of previous experience of students in physical culture and sport, their health, physical fitness and personal preferences in sport. The model is built in accordance with the provisions determining the block-modular and score-rating technologies.

The working curriculum on physical culture and sports in St. Petersburg State University is aimed at teaching students the proper use of knowledge on personality physical culture, methods of physical education to improve the adaptive potential of the body, health promotion, and after the graduation - the use of knowledge and skills to promote professional longevity and effective employment.

According to this purpose there are tasks related to the formation: of understanding of the social role of physical culture in personal development and training for professional activity; of knowledge on scientific, physiological and practical fundamentals of physical culture and healthy lifestyle; of the positive attitude to physical culture and aim at healthy lifestyle, physical self-improvement and self-education; of the need for regular physical exercises and sport; of practical skills related to health preservation and promotion, development and improvement of psychophysical capabilities, personal qualities and self-determination in physical education; professionally applied physical fitness for future occupation; of the experience of creative use of sports activity to achieve life and professional goals.

The implementation of the working curriculum on physical culture and sport in St.Petersburg State University is provided by the following measures: at least 4 hours of classes (twice a week) for undergraduate students of intramural and extramural forms of education in accordance with the FSES HPE and getting the "Certificate of Physical Culture SPSU" after graduation; use of modern information technologies (an electronic journal, creation of a personal account for a teacher and a student, conditions for distance learning of the thematic (lecture) material); annual monitoring of the body functional status; curricula control using score-rating system; admission to the final governmental certification of students with at least 400 points gained over the entire period.

In case of the successful mastering of the work curriculum on physical culture and sport students of St.Petersburg State University master the OKB-9 competence. Its content in accordance with the educational standard of SPSU is: ready to use right the conception of physical culture and methods of physical education to improve the adaptive reserves of the body and promote health, providing active professional activity. During the implementation of the bachelor’s educational program students can do physical culture and sports, including playing types of training, for not less than 400 hours. The university organizes control of general competences formation, provided by the present educational standard, by the results of physical education and sports activity... The successful completion of certification tests is a mandatory condition for the admission to the final governmental certification.

The successful mastering of the OKB-9 competence by the SPSU students is provided by the block-modular and score-rating systems of organization of physical culture and sport in SPSU (Scheme 1).

The basis of the block-modular organization of physical culture and sport in SPSU consists of: sports block, main block; fitness block; additional block. Each of these, in its turn, includes respective modules.

The sports block contains "self-improvement" and "improvement" modules, the main block - "basic" and "improvement" modules, the fitness block - "basic" and "fitness" modules, the additional block - "basic" and "additional" modules.

The "self-improvement” module of the sports block is being mastered by 1-4 year students with the first sports category who participate in inter-university competitions in the chosen sport. The sports they are offered include: rowing, mountaineering, aerobics, badminton, basketball, boxing, cycling, water polo, volleyball, skiing, athletics, skiing, table tennis, swimming, rugby, rock climbing, orienteering, weightlifting, football, chess, checkers. Training mode: 6 hours per week, 200 hours per year (400 hours total).

The "self-improvement” module of the sports block is being mastered by 1-4 year students with the first sports category in the chosen sport. They train and participate in the university championship in such sports: rowing, mountaineering, aerobics, badminton, basketball, boxing, wrestling, cycling, water polo, volleyball, martial arts, skiing, athletics, skiing, table tennis, swimming, polyathlon, rugby, rock climbing, orienteering, tourism, weightlifting, football, chess, checkers. Training mode: 4 hours per week, 100 hours per year (400 hours total).

The "basic" module of the main block is being mastered by first year students. They can do: aerobics, badminton, basketball, boxing, wrestling, volleyball, martial arts, athletics, skiing, swimming, rock climbing, orienteering, weightlifting, football, checkers, chess, applied sports (field faculties), general physical training. Classes are held 4 hours per week, 100 hours per year.

Thanks to the "self-improvement" module of the main block 2-4 year students can master three levels of OKB-9 competence during the aerobics, badminton, basketball, boxing, wrestling, volleyball, martial arts, athletics, skiing, swimming, rock climbing, orienteering, weightlifting, football, checkers, chess, applied sports classes according to basic educational programs, general physical training, special programs of professionally applied training in accordance with the basic educational programs. Classes are scheduled to be held 4 hours a week, 300 hours total. At the same time, students have 100 hours for mastering each of the three levels of competence.

The "basic" module of the fitness block is being mastered by first year students with weak health: of the preparatory medical group - with minor deviations in physical development and health condition and insufficient physical fitness; special medical sub-group "A" with reversible health deviations, able to be transferred to the preparatory medical group. The content of the classes is defined by special programs on aerobics (fitball, stretching, fitness), martial arts (wushu), skiing, athletics (fitness walking and running), swimming, scandinavian walking, tourism (walk), as well as the "Fitness systems" direction, general physical training. Frequency of classes - 4 hours a week, the amount of time - 100 hours.

The "fitness" module of the fitness block provides three levels of mastering the OKB-9 competence by 2-4 year students with weak health. They are offered multilevel fitness programs on: aerobics (fitball, stretching, fitness), martial arts (wushu), skiing, athletics (recreational walking and jogging), swimming, tourism, scandinavian walking, special programs of the "Fitness systems" direction, general physical training. Classes are held 4 hours a week, 50 hours are given for mastering each level of competence per semester (100 hours total).

The "basic" module of the additional block is for 1-4 year students of the special medical sub-group "B" with organic irreversible changes in the state of organs and systems (organic lesions of cardiovascular, urinary system, liver, high degree of myopia with fundus change, etc.). They are free from practical classes and their main goal is to be transferred to sub-group "A". They study together with the students in the "Acting" specialization (plastical education), and students of intramural and extramural education. The module provides individual consultations, methodical and practical classes, fitness programs and plastical education. Recommended sports: checkers, chess. 400 hours are given for the classes.

Sections

Sports block

Main block

Fitness

block

Additional block*

Students

with sports categories or sufficient skills

Basic medical group.

Preparatory medical group without significant load restrictions

Preparatory medical group with load restrictions.

Special medical group (not free from practical classes).

Special medical group (free from practical classes). Those who missed classes due to illness in the semester. Students who have returned from academic leave. Restored students. Acting.

 

Amount of hours

400

400

400

400

Courses

1-4

1

2-4

1

2-4

1-4

Modules

Self-improvement

Improvement

Basic

Fitness

Professionally applied*(for field faculties)

Basic

Fitness

Basic

Additional

Threshold rating

 

400 points

400 points

400 points

400 points

*** (100 points)

Scheme 1. The model of block-modular organization of physical culture and sport in SPSU.

The additional module of the additional block is recommended for 1-4 year students, who are mastering the modules of the first three blocks and wish to get extra points. They are those who missed classes due to illness, those who returned from academic leave and restored students. To conduct classes with them when necessary the groups are formed, the amount of time - no more than 100 hours per year. Current examinations - at the end of each of 7 semesters and the final certification in the 8th semester on the score-rating system. The only exception is the second module of the additional block. The results of the examinations are recorded in the electronic journal, and the final certification data are recorded in the "Certificate for Physical Culture of the SPSU graduate"). At the end of the semester student familiarizes himself with the number of scored points and confirms it with his signature.

Educational activity according to the model of the block-modular organization of physical culture and sport is consistent with the principle of gradual release of students and their transition to independent physical culture and sports classes by the scheme: teacher-guided - under the teacher’s supervision  with the role of consultanting - independent exercises.

The block-modular organization of physical culture and sport in SPSU assumes two levels of classes with students: basic level - students learn according to work curriculum on physical culture and sport, and at the same time they are being trained for classes in "light sport" groups - the independent sports classes in study groups with teacher’s consultations, the student chooses a teacher, time and place of exercises in accordance with the schedule, and has an opportunity to engage in not one, but several sports during the week, month, semester, year, three years; the self-improvement level - classes in "light sport" groups for the students who have mastered the basic level, capable of independent sports classes, who've scored the required amount of points, passed monitoring and testing, and thereby received a "Passport of competence" - a pass to the "light sport" group, the document that reflects the results of studies in these groups. In forming the "light sport” groups the following requirements are taken into account: the uniformity of the indicators of sports fitness and the level of readiness for independent sports consulted by a teacher; there are no restrictions on gender. With the transition to the "light sport" group the degrees of freedom for students expand with the opportunity to choose the education way: to continue the study in the group under the teacher’s guidance (passport of competence is not issued); to get into the "light sport" group and score for a year the required amount of points; engage in fitness programs (students of the basic and special medical groups); to engage on one or more "levels" of the sports club pyramid as its active member (Scheme 2).

Scheme 2. The model of university sport in SPSU.

Students of the special medical group involved in fitness programs are completed according to the criteria: restriction on gender; only those who are allowed physical loads; the uniformity of deviations in the health state. Besides, the students of the main and preparatory groups are allowed to engage in fitness programs.

If a student preferred the "light sport" group he can choose one of the directions: physical loads in a particular power zone of muscle work; to improve the technique in chosen sport; circular training - a complex development of physical qualities; improvement in one or several sports.

As a result of the full implementation of the Work curriculum on physical culture and sport, the prerequisites for the transition to the club system of modern university sport and individual fitness programs, for healthy students and for those with weak health, should be created. The development of university sport is among the tasks of this Working curriculum. Sports club aims to provide, in cooperation with domestic and foreign student organizations, the development of university sports in a classical university.

To understand the university sport as a phenomenon, we turn to its organizational features, which are connected with the accessibility and opportunity: to do sports during physical education and sport classes and independently in sport sections at spare time; to participate systematically in university sport competitions (qualification competitions, university and inter-university competitions in chosen sport). This system allows each student at first to meet and then choose a sport for regular classes [30].

As for the score-rating system the Regulations on it correspond the methodical recommendations on the rating systems development for the assessment of students' progress, approved by orders of the Ministry of Education 11.07.2002 № 2654, and 15.02.2005 № 40 "On the implementation of the Bologna Declaration in the higher education system of the Russian Federation."

The score-rating system that controls mastering of the OKB-9 competence, suggests a complex approach to the implementation of principles, methods of education, regular sports activity, creativity, independent work during the academic year (the entire period of education), control and self-control of sports activities and the promotion of individual motor and cognitive activity. It helps to evaluate: training and practical exercises under the teacher's guidance; tests (theory); monitoring; participation in competitions; acting as referee in social work; organizational activities; fitness programs; participation in sports activities at sport bases; applied professional physical training during the practice period; participation in health promotions, health days; swimming skills development of those field faculty students who can't swim; mastering of the program of applied professional physical training; qualifying in swimming; plastical education - for students of the arts faculty.

Each section has obligatory and extra points which a student can get. In the score-rating system there are points for attending classes and participating in them, for participating in their conduction, mastering of various programs and participation in sports activities during practices. All this is written in the main sections of the score-rating system.

The process of formation of the OKB-9 competence of students (Scheme 3) is shown in the form of several stages.

Scheme 3. The model of gradual formation of the OKB-9 competence in students.

While engaged in the sports, main or fitness block, a student gradually learns the programs of the basic and self-improvement modules, participates in extracurricular classes to consolidate the competence. Extracurricular activities are independent exercises that are not in the department schedule, in sports organizations and at sports facilities outside SPSU educational and sports base etc.

According to calculations, the successful completion of the Work curriculum on physical culture and sport is supposed to result in the involvement into the educational activity in different programs of the mastering of the OKB-9 competence of the following number of students: the basic module (1 year) - up to 4,5 students; the improvement module (2-4 year) - up to 12 thousand, among them up to 15% of those training under the teacher’s guidance; up to 49% - in the "light sport" groups; up to 10% in fitness programs; up to 25% in sports clubs; up to 1% in the student research  club (SRC).

Adaptive reserves and health promotion of the SPSU students by introducing fitness programs and the Working curriculum implementation under favorable conditions can be improved by the consistent transition to respective  groups of physical culture and sports under the scheme: special medical group of those students who are free from classes - special medical group with limited physical load  - preparatory medical group - main medical group - group of "easy sport" - sports group - University team.

The mastering of the OKB-9 competence occurs in psycho-educational conditions that assume taking into account the interests and needs of the students, extending their abilities in choosing attractive forms and types of sports activity, orientation to constant analysis of students individuality, study of domestic and international experience in physical education and sport; formation of teachers' willingness to innovative activities in the field of physical culture and sport.

In the context of the block-modular and score-rating system of organization of physical culture and sport, a classical university teacher must meet the following requirements: the compliance of the content and the style of teacher’s scientific-pedagogical activity corresponds with the university level; scientific-educational activity is aimed at achieving the final and intermediate results, which the block-modular and score-rating system are oriented to; clarifying of the procedure of study for the students within the block-modular and score-rating system of organization of physical culture and sport; formation of students' willingness to exercise in light sport groups, in fitness programs and their activities in the university sport system as an active club member of a complex, faculty,  university; scientific organization of their work; desire for professional and personal self-improvement; high-quality education; comprehensive education and fitness of students; formation of students' ability to independently engage in sports; skills of using information technologies; skills and abilities of organization of sports activity.

The expected results of the Work curriculum implementation in SPSU are: high level of professional and personal qualification of the physical education teachers; proper activity of the students in the sphere of physical culture and sports; effective education provided by the physical education department; full mastering of the OKB-9 competence by the students; tendency of improvement of students’ health and educational results; creation of prerequisites for the transition to the club system of functioning and development of university sport; improvement of sports results at the level of university teams at the national and international levels.

The possible risks of the Work curriculum implementation in SPSU are connected with: the lack of the university sports facilities that meet the modern demands, insufficient willingness of teachers for innovations and lack of their qualification; misunderstanding of the organization tasks of the educational activities by the university administration and students; bad quality of educational and sports activities; insufficient support of the innovative activities in the sphere of physical culture and sport from the sports community and city administration.

The block-modular and score-rating system of organization of physical culture and sports is implemented in SPSU. That enabled to improve the situation in physical education of students, according to the survey. So, for the question: “What is your motivation for physical education and sport?” - 35% of students answered that they wanted to improve their health, 39% - wanted to fulfill the need for physical activity, 15% - wanted to get the necessary points, i.e. about 74% of students clarified their motives for physical education and sport. Concerning the relationship to sports - 57% of students considered it as one of the means of physical development. For the question: “What are your choice criteria of sports?” – the answers were: 15% of students considered important teacher’s personal and professional qualities, 44% - sports conditions, 20% - location of sport facilities. Thus, Conditions of sports classes are important for most of clearly motivated students. While answering the question: “At the moment, do you think that you are ready for…?” - 67% of students preferred to continue exercises in chosen sports with their teacher. For the question: “Are you ready to participate in sports competitions to make them more interesting?” - 55% of students said “Yes”: 32% were ready because it was interesting for them and 23% - because of extra points. The interesting answer was about the time of physical education classes. 70% of students thought that they should choose the time on their own.  Here is the tendency for self-education among students.

Conclusion. The ideas presented in the paper do not claim to be final. Surely, more studies and profound analysis of the findings of its approval in the long-term cycle of the educational and sports activity are to be made, along with fundamental researches and detailed studies of the Russian and foreign experience and consideration of specifics of every university, its students and other factors. Regarding the suggested block-modular model of organization of physical culture and sport in St.Petersburg state university, it seems possible to consider it as some invariant to be taken as a basis when organizing physical culture and sport in the universities of Russia.

References

  1. The strategy of development of physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation for the period till 2020. Order of the government RF 07.08 2009 № 1101-р. (In Russian)
  2. Denisov, N.L. Health and preventive activity of students // Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. 2008. № 5. P. 94-95. (In Russian)
  3. Internet resource: Modern students acquire knowledge and lose their health: vaccination of Tatiana Ressina / http://www.ressina-privivka.ru/young/student.htm. (In Russian)
  4. Agadzhanyan, N.A., Byakhov M.Yu., Klyachkin, L.M. et al. Ecological problems of epidemiology. – Moscow: Prosvetitel’, 2003. 208 P. (In Russian)
  5. Sannikova, N.I., Eremeev, S.I., Galai, O.I. // Uchenye zapiski universiteta im. P.F. Lesgafta. Iss. 8 (78), 2011. P. 39-43. (In Russian)
  6. Nefedovskaya, L.V. Comprehensive medico-social study of visual impairment in children: regional features, quality of life, optimization of medical care. Doctoral thesis (Med.). - Krasnoyarsk, 2009. 41 P. (In Russian)
  7. Vikulov, A.D., Egorycheva, E.V. Analysis of health status and functional fitness of students of Special Branch of Technical University. Yaroslavl: Yaroslavl’sky pedagogicheskiy vestnik. – 2012 – № 3 – V. II (Psycho-pedagogical sciences). P.118-120. (In Russian)
  8. Rudin, M.V. Competency building approach in organization of the university sports and fitness activity of students // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2011. № 6. (In Russian)
  9. Kalugina, I.Yu. Educational opportunities of practice-centered education of students: Ph.D. thesis: 13.00.01: Ekaterinburg, 2000 215 P. (In Russian)
  10. Kvashuk, P.V. Differentiated approach to the construction of training process of young athletes at phases of n-term training: Ph.D. thesis. Moscow, 2003. 226 P. (In Russian)
  11. Doroshenko, S.A. The specific sports approach in physical education of university students: Ph.D. / S.A. Doroshenko. – Malakhovka, 2011. – 168 P. (In Russian)
  12. The official Bologna Seminar on Employ ability in context of the Bologna Process, Bled/ Slovenia 21-23 October 2004. (In Russian)
  13. Lebedev, O.E. Competency building approach in education // Shkol’nye tekhnologii. 2004. № 5. P. 3-7. (In Russian)
  14. Elagina, V.S., Pokhlebaev, S.M. Competency building approach to the organization of students’ training in a pedagogical university // Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2012. № 3 (Part 3). P. 571-575. (In Russian)
  15. Krasnova, T.I. Innovations in the system of evaluation of students’ learning // Education for Sustainable Development. Minsk: Publ. Center BSU, 2005. P. 438-440. (In Russian)
  16. Unt, I.E. Individualization and differentiation of education. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1990. 192 P. (In Russian)
  17. Artyukhov, M.V. Differentiated education within an industrially developed region: Ph.D. thesis. Novokuznetsk, 1996. 231 P. (In Russian)
  18. Groot, R. Differentiation in education // Direktor shkoly. 1994. №5. P.12-18. (In Russian)
  19. Yakimanskaya, I.S., Abramova, S.G. Psycho-pedagogical problems of differentiated education // Sovetskaya pedagogika. - 1991. №4. P. 44-54. (In Russian)
  20. Tyulenkov, S.Y., Zuev, S.N., Krylova, L.M. The technology of teaching physical education in universities: Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. № 5, 2001. P. 50-54. (In Russian)
  21. Andryushenko, L.V. Sports centered technology of teaching students the subject “Physical education” / L.V. Andryushenko // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. 2002. № 2. P. 47-54. (In Russian)
  22. Panchenko, I.A., Rudenko, G.V. The use of modular approach in physical training of mining university students // Electronic resource: http//www.obrazovanie21.narod.ru/Files/2011-2_p084-086.pdf. (In Russian)
  23. Valeeva, G.V., Greb, A.V. The contents of innovative educational technologies in physical education // Proceedings of the All-Russian theoretical-practical conference "On the increase of the role of physical culture and sport in the development of students’ personality" (17-18 November 2011) / Ed. by: M.Ya. Vilensky, S.I. Filimonova. Moscow, 2011. 316 P. Art. 28-31. (In Russian)
  24. Vasenev, Yu.B. The use of the competency approach and the credit-modular approach to design work programs of educational subjects: guidance / Yu.B. Vasenev. – St.Petersburg, 2011. – 170 P. (In Russian)
  25. Shil’ko, V.G. Modernization of the system of physical education of students based on the personality-centered physical training and sports activity: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / V.G. Shil’ko. – Tomsk, 2003. – 488 P. (In Russian)
  26. Federal law of the Russian Federation, November, 10 2009 № 259-FL “On Moscow state university and St.Petersburg state university. (In Russian)
  27. New format of physical education classes / Immanuel Kant BFU. – E-journal of students of Kant BFU “Universiya”. - Kaliningrad: BFU, 2010. – URL: http://www.kantiana.ru/news/142/19460/?sphrase_id=465200] – February, 15 2010. (In Russian)
  28. Zorina, S.D. The model of organization of extracurricular physical education in higher educational institutions // Ph.D. thesis. – Volgograd, 2009. 160 P. (In Russian)
  29. ​Student’s physical culture: textbook / Ed. by I. Il’inich. – Moscow: Gardariki, 2000. – 448 P. (In Russian)