V.A. Grekhovodov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Azov-Black Sea state agroengineering academy, Zernograd, the Rostov region
Key words: educational technology, technique, program, scale of measurement, point.
The studies of the contemporary scientific trends in the field of physical culture and sport in available literary sources and in the internet (scientific-methodological journals, proceedings of scientific conferences, abstracts of Ph.D. and doctoral theses etc.) have revealed two specific features of the modern scientific activity, influencing negatively scientific researches and the wide application of their findings in the scientific teaching community. These are the issue of the hierarchy of scientific categories – educational technology, methodology, program and the use in the analysis of the results of research activity of such a measure as point.
Considering the criteria of the educational technology, methodology and program, one is to reveal the sense of the most popular concepts, which is hard to do due to the existing variety of definitions of these concepts and numerous alternative versions.
The purpose of the study was to make a theoretical analysis of the concepts used in scientific researches in education.
There are numerous interesting definitions of the essence of educational technologies - the term that has become quite popular in the recent years :
- technology - a set of techniques applied in some particular action, in art;
- technology - art, skill, ability, a set of methods of processing and changing of state;
- teaching technology - an integral procedural part of didactic system;
- educational technology - a set of psychological and educational norms that define the social set and the arrangement of forms, methods, techniques, methods of teaching, training facilities, it is a set of tools of an educational process;
- educational technology - is a substantial technique of implementation of an educational process;
- educational technology - a description of the process of achievement of planned results of education;
- educational technology - a thought out in every detail model of joint educational activities in designing, organizing and conducting an educational process which ensures an absolutely comfortable environment for students and teachers;
- educational technology - a systematic method of creation, application and definition of the whole process of teaching and learning, taking into account technical and human resources and their interactions, which focuses on optimizing forms of education (UNESCO);
- • educational technology - systematic array and order of functioning of all personal, instrumental and methodological methods used in order to achieve educational goals;
The concept of "methods" (derived from methodology) in the literature  in various interpretations is considered as:
- methodology - a pedagogical science that studies the patterns of learning a particular subject;
- teaching/learning methods - teacher and student activities, which are applied to acquire and master knowledge, skills and abilities, to form students’ worldview and develop their abilities;
- the term "methodology" implies the mechanism of using an array of methods, techniques, means and conditions of training and teaching students.
Besides, "methodology is a primary condition of effectiveness of scientific venture and research, it determines the correct and the fastest way to the truth, enables developing a common strategy and tactics of the way that leads to achieving the goal" . In this respect, methodology in the meaning of general method of perception can be considered as a system of methods in a particular science or in a number of adjacent sciences, in the sense of a doctrine, allowing critical apprehension of the methods of learning and practice.
At the same time the main document regulating the content of secondary, sepcialized and higher education is a sample work program of a discipline and developed on its basis work programs, i.e. it is assumed that this is the main primary document. Program (from Greek Programma – announcement, prescription) – a plan of envisaged activities, works; curriculum - a short systematic presentation of the learning content of a particular subject, the range of knowledge and skills to be assimilated by students 
Analyzing the above, we can draw the following conclusions on the matter:
- in its essence the concepts of "educational technology", "methodology" and "program" do not differ in meaning, are equal criteria for scientific researches and define the educational content of training process in scientific educational researches;
- different scientific sources lack a clear definition of the subordination of the studied concepts and the authors define the significance of categories according to their own understanding, which creates some difficulties when discussing and standing for their point of view.
Results and discussion. In the analysis of these concepts it is necessary to explain the content and structure of their subordination.
Let us consider the aspect of using the category of points in scientific educational works. Nowadays no one questions the validity of the statements and regulations which are given in textbooks and used in scientific work. As a rule, it is accepted as truth that the point is a qualitative indicator that according to Y.D. Zheleznyak, P.K. Petrov , M.A. Godik  and V.M. Zatsiorsky  relates to the rank scale.
Let us consider the concept of points with respect to quantitative scales - interval and ratio ones. In the same source  they are defined as follows: "... The use of interval scale is possible in such a case when by using a particular criterion (standard measure) one can determine the signs of differences not only by more – less type, but also by the number of points one object or phenomenon differs from another. Measurement according to the ratio scale is different from the interval scale measurement by the fact that the zero point is not arbitrary and indicates the complete absence of the measured quality .... ", i.e. points can not be assigned to these scales in relation to the mentioned above parameters.
The key phrases in the definitions are criterion (standard measure) and the zero point is not arbitrary, but instead points to a complete absence of the measured quality.
Regarding the quantitative criteria, which have standard measurements, we usually refer meters, seconds, degrees, etc. But if we consider these standards, the question of their accuracy arises. It is known that the standards are kept in the House of weights and measures, but in practice we do not use the original standards, but merely their copies (samples). And here, especially during a research, we are dealing with the human factor, namely the possible inaccuracies in the manufacture and most importantly in the measurement (manual or mechanical, i.e. having a stopwatch started sooner or later in each particular measurement, a roulette placed a millimeter closer or and so on). When it comes to a fixed zero, having the freezing point of water as an example it is impossible to claim that the measurements are identical, it is known that the freezing point and boiling point of water are directly related to the pressure in the environment measured and the atmospheric pressure or person's blood pressure can never be identical during the research, i.e. zero degrees Celsius is a floating point.
But this value is also present in the system of points. Zero point is a fixed rate before an athlete’s performance and step is the level of fitness defined by experts. In the case of using a five-point system (school, university, KVN, etc.) zero - is the level of knowledge before a performance or training. Step in this case is defined by the rules of competitions in combat sports, artistic and rhythmic gymnastics, acrobatics, figure skating (by the quality of throw, stroke, complicacy of technical actions being performed, etc.) or by the experts (teachers). Thus, such a standard exists in both the qualitative and quantitative measurements and in both categories of measurement an error and the human factor are possible. So why in that case we can not say that the point measurement corresponds to the interval scale.
Let us examine how points relate to the ratio scale, i.e. whether there is a zero in a sport test, meaning complete absence of a quality or a property. Most clearly this can be shown by the method of paired comparisons. The work of A.A. Sidorov et al.  contains a detailed examination of the method of expert evaluations using paired comparisons. This technique has a very high degree of formalization due to the absence of less informative questions and multiple choice answers to them. This method eliminates the drawbacks of questionnaires with direct questions, as a respondent might not always be honest in answering the questions put. An expert is only to choose one of two qualities, which he would rather prefer. In his work V.A. Chistyakov  has proved the theorem concerning the method of paired comparisons. In this work it is shown that the ranks of the qualities calculated in this method are the assessments of the probability (up to a factor) of the influence of the qualities that are included in an expert questionnaire to achieve sports goals.
Expert either gives a fixed point to one quality or zero points, i.e. complete absence of the tested quality, and the standard in this case is a fixed unit, which fully corresponds to the relative scale.
Analyzing like that the other testing methods, we can come to similar conclusions.
Proceeding from the studies, points can and are to be referred to the last two scales, which makes it easier and expands the capacities of using mathematical statistics in researches and ensures more efficient development of the scientific thought among young researchers and students who assume the Student's t test as a reliable base.
- Godik, M.A. Sports metrology: study guide / M.A. Godik. – Moscow, 1988. – 236 P. (In Russian)
- Zheleznyak, Yu.D. The basics of the scientific-methodological activity in physical culture and sport: study guide for higher school students / 2nd ed., rev. and enl. / Yu.D. Zheleznyak, P.K. Petrov. – Moscow: Academia, 2005. – 272 P. (In Russian)
- Sidorov, A.A. On educational technologies and artificial intelligence / A.A. Sidorov, B.V. Ivanyuzhenkov, V.V. Nelyubin. – Moscow: Drofa, 1999. – 190 P. (In Russian)
- Sports metrology / Ed. by V.M. Zatsiorsky. – Moscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1982. – 256 P. (In Russian)
- Chistyakov, V.A. The use of the theory of the information exchange in the educational process; monograph/ V.A. Chistyakov. – St.Petersburg: RIC SpbSU, 2001. – 209 P. (In Russian)
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