Thinking-Image Modelling of Motor Actions of Students at Physical Education Classes

Фотографии: 

I.R. Tarasenko, Ph.D.
A.A. Marchenko, Ph.D.
P.V. Tarasov, associate professor, Ph.D.
O.Yu. Tarasova, associate professor, Ph.D.
Stavropol state agrarian university, Stavropol

Key words: personal physical culture, socio-spiritual values, educational technology, motivational value orientations.

Introduction. At the present stage of development of Russian society, in addition to specific professional knowledge and skills, the model of elite specialist should include the basic personality traits, which are harmoniously developed owing to spiritual, physical, mental and social health, high level of culture, communication and creativity [2, 4, 5, 6]. In this context, the modern educational system needs its content to be reconsidered in view of the philosophical-anthropological and culturological approaches aimed to reflect the humanistic and humanitarian aspects of human existence, man’s socio-spiritual values, activities in nature and society. The essential characteristic of such a reflection is the integral world-view and a man in it, in its harmony of spiritual and physical development [1, 3, 8]. Currently, social and spiritual values ​​are formed mainly spontaneously influenced by a variety of factors, especially vital needs, the content of which is determined now by the restoration of the capitalist relations in Russia, not always meeting the spirituality of human morals, ethics, mental health of society and culture of people in general [1, 7]. All this contributes greatly to the social importance of this study, primarily due to the fact that spiritual life is an important aspect of social functioning and development, truly human nature is shown in its content. The personnel training process, being so far one of complex activities, is still not completely studied and defined both regarding the content and quality of education, and in respect to the key components of professionally important personality traits of future specialists. It is an undeniable fact that socio-spiritual values should take a special place in the structure of their professionalism. It is them that, in our opinion, are the basis of all human activities, and in particular professional one: they motivate it, activate and transform the labor process into creative work, what is the most important, actualize the spiritual sense of industrial relations in the society and ensure their effectiveness.

The purpose of the study was to determine and experimentally substantiate the organizational and psychological educational conditions of the technological support of formation of socio-spiritual values of young students by means of physical culture.

Materials and methods. The educational technology of formation of socio-spiritual values ​​is a technological microstructure in the macrostructure of formation of personal physical culture and seems to us as a functional system of organizational methods of the algorithmic control of teaching and cognitive and practical activities of students, providing instrumentally by means of physical culture humanitarian making up of personality, formation and development of a diverse system of socio-spiritual formations in their minds that reflect the social and personal importance of the motivational value sphere (knowledge, morality, ethics of behavior, aesthetics of feelings and tastes, healthy way of life, attitude to work and sports activity), integrated in the world-view and spiritual capacities of an individual student, representing a combination of his properties and qualities to perceive, feel and understand the public spiritual-cultural values.

Generalization of the teaching experience of educational technologies, determination of the conditions of technologization of the education/bringing-up process on physical education in the university have proved the possibility of establishing the technological model of formation of socio-spiritual values ​​of future experts by means of physical culture. Five main directions of the educational process and 22 components, revealing the leading structure of socio-spiritual values ​​of student's personal physical culture, extrapolated to the key one – world outlook, were included in its structure [8].

The technology of formation of socio-spiritual values, as well as any educational technology, presupposes the existence of an ideology (purpose, content, principles); working "tools" (training and methodological support, material and technical equipment); staff (properly trained teaching personnel – purposeful managers who can do creative work). The process of formation of socio-spiritual values ​​has a clear structure (Fig.).

Fig. Technological structure of the process of formation socio-spiritual values

Stavropol State Agrarian University was the experimental base for the study. 140 first-year students of the Faculty of Agronomy were included in the sample of subjects to obtain empirical data. Athletes with a rating were not in the group. The experiment lasted four semesters. The educational technology of formation of socio-spiritual values was introduced to the curriculum on the discipline "Physical education".

Whilst developing an educational technology the optimal variant of distribution of the program material and the basic form of the content of classes were experimentally determined:

  • the structure of educational elements and their logical relationship were revealed;
  • the order of studying sections of the course, the structure and form of the substance of classes were justified;
  • teaching techniques, methods and means of studying were selected, reflecting the characteristics of the course;
  • time criteria of mastering educational elements are defined.

Formation of socio-spiritual values ​​in the structure of student's personal physical culture and professionally important qualities was provided by the technological functionally operational component, and the spiritual and physical self-improvement was the result of it.

The educational technology as an educational-training system consisted of three main components: information, instrumental and social. 

Formation of socio-spiritual values ​​in the structure of student's personal physical culture and professionally important qualities was provided by the technological functionally operational component, and the spiritual and physical self-improvement was the result of it.

The educational technology as an educational-training system consisted of three main components: information, instrumental and social.

Formation of scientific world-view, active attitude to work, aesthetic and moral qualities, socio-spiritual values ​​whilst training physical culture is associated with the general objectives of an integral educational process, but they are solved using specific methods and techniques, inherent in physical culture and sport. Specific methods and techniques are also the conditions in which they are applied. And they are known to reflect in the centralized manner the realities of life in certain situations, and help to identify the manifestation of traits, feelings, relationships, attitudes, beliefs, etc. This is where the importance of physical culture and sport in training socio-spiritual values ​​of an individual is actualized.

Moral education at physical education classes of students was carried out by creating psycho-pedagogical conditions for communicative culture in practical classes and competitive activity; sharing skills regarding competition rules; giving information about Spartian and Olympic movements, various forms of humanistic orientation of physical culture and sport.

Aesthetic consciousness of students was formed on the basis of knowledge of the aesthetics science and included the conscious aesthetic attitude to the manifestations of aesthetic categories in reality. The means affecting students’ aesthetic feelings during physical education were students’ actions, technical and tactical actions, correctly and beautifully executed exercises, mood music, dress code, communicative culture at classes, tools and equipment, clearly and well organized classes etc. In order to develop senses of beauty physical exercises were provided with mood music, demonstration of posters, video tapes, music videos, students also visit municipal and regional competitions in art-related sports.

In sports and technical training students focused not only on the right and rational execution of exercises, but also on the beauty of movement. Bad behavior of students during classes and competitions was discussed and analyzed in the study groups. Students were entrusted the organization of sports events, competitions, parties, where they were both participants and judges.

Results and discussion. On the ascertaining stage it has been found that knowledge in the field of physical culture of young people, who had entered the university, generally did not meet the government standard for the discipline "Physical education", the low level was shown in motivational value orientations, socio-spiritual values​​, weak physical fitness and physical development, and, as a consequence, young people had proper general physical working capacity and overall health. Basically, personal physical culture was displayed at the situational level (58,6%), where the lack of special knowledge and intellectual abilities, ideas about the importance of socio-spiritual values ​​in the structure of professional personal traits and in physical culture, that provides them, was marked. Motivational value orientations were displayed situationally and indistinctly. Physical perfection was characterized by the low level of physical development and the mismatch of physical fitness with the age standard. In general, there was marked a lack of positive attitude to the development of the values ​​of physical culture, the desire to learn and use it purposefully. The early literacy level was observed in 32% of those starting university studies, but it was characterized by the most elementary knowledge and understanding of the values ​​of physical culture. And the knowledge had the phenomenological level of abstraction and mostly the first degree of awareness and student level of its assimilation.

The holistic evaluation of socio-spiritual values ​​implies the physical and spiritual unity in the personality structure. State of health depends on personality traits, behavior awareness, acceptance (or rejection) of the main socio-spiritual values, ​​that contribute to either strengthening or damaging of health (his and others).

The results of self-evaluation of the structural components of healthy way of life of university entrants show a deplorable picture. Approximately 15,9% of respondents think they are absolutely healthy, bur only 11% keep to the daily routine. 4,7% drink alcohol quite often and 78,6% - sometimes, 67% smoke. It is interesting that almost 100% of the respondents have a positive attitude to healthy way of life, but only 9,1% adhere to it constantly.

Students’ state of psychological and moral health was studied at three levels: high, average and low [7].

Levels of psychological health of students entering a university, meet the following criteria: high level (26,8%) – recognizing oneself as an honourable personality, lack of anxiety, reflection, activity, responsibility; average level (40,7%) - drowsiness, depressed mood; low level (32,4%) - anxiety, depression, irritability and insomnia.

Levels of spiritual and moral health corresponded to the following criteria: high level (19,8%) - benevolence, nobility, faithfulness, generosity, dignity, mercy, conscience, peace, compassion, understanding, justice, generosity, humanity; average level (22,9%) – proneness to conflict, anxiety, coldness; low level (14,8%) – sense of futility, tragic world-view, loss of interest in life, evil.

Designing the educational technology of formation of socio-spiritual values ​​of student's personality: development of a diagnosed goal, technological principles; determination of the content of education according to criterion characteristics of the goal; creation of a functional model based on the components of educational technology and its implementation in practice helped to significantly change the state of socio-spiritual values ​​of students in a positive way and as a consequence raise the level of their physical culture in general.

Sports ethics of 27,7 % of students have changed for the better within the experiment. The qualities that have significantly increased were diligence (53,2%); aesthetic senses to mediated and unmediated perception of physical exercises and sports situations - 33% of respondents; the number of students keeping to a healthy way of life has increased by 53,5% and on the scientific basis (56,8%), the number of non-drinkers (10,6%) and non-smokers (13,5%) has actually increased.

Inclusion in the educational process on personal physical education of methods and techniques that contribute to the formation of aesthetic taste, ethics, morality, faith, hard work, manifestation of positive emotions during a class, creation of psychological comfort during classes (lack of irritability, teacher’s formal attitude; excessive volume of tasks, fear of impending test) provided the overall improvement of socio-spiritual values ​​of personal physical culture and the level of psychological and moral health of students.

Proceeding from the survey at the end of the fourth semester, despite the relatively short term university studies, the students’ ratio of significance of motives to values ​​of physical culture has changed under the influence of the educational technology. On retention of the dominant role of personally important motives (90%) their score has increased by 35,2% in respect to social and 45,8% in respect to professional values​​. In addition, when the leading place of the physiological needs in the sphere of physical culture are constant (80,1%) the role of self-actualization needs (37,3%), self-esteem (31,7%) and social relationships (35,6%) has increased.

At the end of the fourth semester, students had the knowledge in the field of recreational physical culture, fitness and sports training, recreational systems; methods of self-control and physical self-perfection; were able to predict their health and physical activity, using analytical ideas about the rules of changes in body state, physical development, fitness, knowledge and interdisciplinary relations. Most of the responses corresponded to the second and the third degrees of awareness of the material, the third and the second level of abstraction of its presentation.

Proceeding from the comparative analysis of the test results at the beginning of the first semester and at the end of the fourth one, after two years of university studies using the technological approach, along with the higher levels of motivational value orientations and improved attendance, the physical fitness level of young students has qualitatively increased.

In terms of the increment of indices in the tables of the curriculum of physical education in a university the progress corresponds to "good" or "excellent" marks in all control tests.

Thus, the student’s personal physical culture has developed after the experimental education by the end of the research. Based on the teacher's supervision, students’ self-rating and control tests, 34% of the total number of subjects learned physical culture at the level of erudition and 44,4% - at the level of its creative use.

The introduction of the designed educational technology, escalation of spiritual and social values and motives, interests and needs in the sphere of physical culture; the use of the personality-centered and developmental education ensured steady attendance of classes by students, substantial changes in their physical fitness and active self-education, self-training and physical development of young students.

The educational observations have revealed an improvement of the students' communicational culture, professional and civic patriotism and aggravation of personally and professionally important qualities, such as conations, purposefulness, kindness, mutual assistance and humor.

Conclusions

1. Socio-spiritual values ​​in the structure of ф future specialist’s personality represent a diverse multi-faceted system of formations in social and individual minds, which displays the current needs, interests, tastes, behavioral and communicative culture, communication and activity, its creative trend and spiritual abilities (we assume as both socially and personally developed set of properties and qualities of a person to perceive, feel and understand public spiritual-cultural values, as well as to reproduce and create them, implement them and live in compliance with them).

2. The defined in the study basic components of the socio-spiritual values ​​of young students, subject to formation of the means of physical culture (knowledge, morals, aesthetics, healthy way of life, attitude to work and sports activity) are interrelated, interdependent, mutually supportive and characterized by the integrative continuity of their development.

3. The educational technology of formation of socio-spiritual values ​​is a technological microstructure in the macrostructure of formation of personal physical culture and seems to us as a functional system of organizational methods of algorithmic control of students’ teaching and cognitive and practical activities, providing instrumentally using physical culture the humanitarian personality formation, development in its consciousness of the diverse system of socio-spiritual formations, that reflect the socially and personally important motivational value sphere (knowledge, morals, ethics of behavior, aesthetics of feelings and tastes, healthy way of life, attitude to work and sports activity), integrated into the world-view and spiritual abilities of student’s personality, representing a combination of his properties and qualities to perceive, feel and understand public spiritual-cultural values.

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Author’s contacts: aleksandrik4@rambler.ru