The number of revolutions when performing complex rotations by highly qualified gymnasts


V.V. Ivashina1
PhD, Associate Professor L.A. Novikova1
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Keywords: rotations, number of revolutions, rhythmic gymnastics.

Introduction. The complexity and difficulty of rotations around the vertical axis is different. Among the movements of this type, there are both elementary exercises and very difficult ones, and the complication is carried out due to the number of turns around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts perform from one to three or more rotations to increase the difficulty [1]. Moreover, according to the rules of rhythmic gymnastics competitions (FIG), all turns must have a fixed and definite shape, as well as a minimum basic rotation (360° or 180°) [2].
The purpose of the study is to determine the number of revolutions (in degrees) when performing rotations by highly qualified gymnasts.
Methodology and organization of the study. The pedagogical experiment was conducted on the basis of RSUFKSMiT. The subjects (n=30) were highly qualified gymnastics students (MSMC, MS, CMS).
The results of the study and their discussion. Gymnasts were asked to perform nine rotations, which are most often found in competitive exercises of athletes. The basic technical value of the rotations ranged from 0.1 points (fouette) to 0.6 points (front twine with the trunk tilted back below the horizontal from a sitting position), with an average group score of 0.41 points.
When performing complex rotations with high technical value, the gymnasts showed the number of revolutions of less than the necessary base: rotation in the front twine without assistance – 324 ° (base 360°), side twine without assistance – 144° (base 180°), front twine with the trunk tilted back from standing and sitting – 144° (base 180°) and 138° (base 180°) respectively. Similar values were shown when performing turns with a basic 360° rotation: the back twine using – 558°, "punch" and "punch in the ring" – 576°, the ring using – 612°, attitude – 742°.
Conclusion. The number of revolutions when performing rotations by highly qualified gymnasts depends on their technical complexity, as well as the position of the trunk relative to the vertical axis.


  1. Gordeeva, M.V. Features of mastering complex turns in rhythmic gymnastics / M.V. Gordeeva // Physical education and sports training – 2011. – No. 2. pp. 53-56.
  2. Rules of judging in rhythmic gymnastics 2022-2024. Approved by the Executive Committee of FIG. – 2021– 227 p.