Functional capabilities of neuromuscular system of top-class female boxers

PhD A.O. Akopyan¹
Researcher L.A. Kulagina¹
Distinguished Master of Sports of Russia O.V. Domulajanova¹
General Secretary of the Russian Boxing Federation U.N. Kremlev1
¹Federal Science Center for Physical Culture and Sport, Moscow

Keywords: boxing, female boxers, neuromuscular system, speed-strength capabilities, test, exercises, energy supply.

Background. Boxing is among the most popular sports in the world that has gained Olympic recognition in both men’s and women’s programs. The inclusion of women’s boxing in the Olympic program has played a positive role in the development of boxing worldwide. There are currently more than 200 female athletes in the World Women’s Championships, representing at least 57 countries. This competition naturally leads to the constant search for new and effective opportunities in the system of training of top-class athletes in all age groups participating in major competitions. The group of female boxers aged 15-16 is not an exception. To develop programs of training of 15-16 year-old female boxers for the main competitions, it is necessary to provide scientific and methodical substantiation for the organization of the training process. One of the major aspects of practical planning of training is the knowledge of the functional and physical fitness of athletes throughout the period of centralized training. In view of this, our studies use the functional state rating methods based on the data on the functionality training reserve, while the speed-strength capabilities of the neuromuscular system are evaluated by testing the sequence of exercises performed at constant time shortage [3, 4].

Objective of the study was to determine the level of development of the aerobic and anaerobic energy supply mechanisms and physical capacity of the main muscle groups of top-class female boxers aged 15-16: chest and back muscles, shoulder muscles, thigh muscles, as well as their explosive force.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 30 strongest female athletes trained for the international tournament. The testing was carried out under centralized training of top-class female boxers of 15-16 years of age at the sports base "Lake Krugloe" after a day of active rest at the beginning of the second training micro-cycle. According to the data on the functionality training reserve, at the time of testing, the team average functional state equaled to 27.6±6.7 c.u., which was lower than the model level for this stage by 8.2% [1, 2]. This fact suggested that the female boxers had a rather high level of functional fitness at the time of testing. The female athletes performed 12 exercises in the mode as follows: 15" – work (number of reps) + 15"- rest. 

The test exercises included:

1. I.P. (initial position) – normal stand position: squats with hands forward;

2. I.P. – with the left foot first: kicking the right leg forward and up, with the simultaneous left-hand blow;
3. I.P. – front plank: pull-ups;
4. I.P. – normal stand position: squat – front plank - I.P.
5. I.P. – prone position: simultaneous straight arm and leg raises;
6. I.P. – front plank: pull-ups with claps;
7. I.P. – with the right foot first: kicking the left leg forward and up, with the simultaneous right-hand blow;
8. I.P. – front plank: alternating knee-to-elbow raises;
9. I.P. – supine position: simultaneous straight arm and leg raises;

10. I.P. – normal stand position: alternating knee-to-chest tuck jumps and kicking the straight leg forward and up;
11. I.P. – normal stand position with the wrist-lock grip on top: "wood chop" to the sides (while twisting the heel);
12. I.P. – main "combat stance": dive handsprings with half turn vault.

The test results were analyzed using a special computer program, where the standard units were calculated in the test for the aerobic and anaerobic energy supply, as well as the speed-strength capabilities of their main muscle groups: chest and back muscles, shoulder muscles, thigh muscles, as well as the explosive force.

Results and discussion. The test results revealed the following patterns in the functional and physical fitness of the 15-16 year-old top-class female boxers. The level of development of the energy systems suggests similar levels of development of aerobic (48.1 c.u.) and anaerobic mechanisms of energy supply (45.6 c.u.).

This fact indicates that the training of female athletes of this age is focused on specialized technical and competitive training in terms of a clearly insufficient amount of functional and physical work.

The analysis of the speed-strength capabilities of the main muscle groups showed: posterior muscle group - 1.7 c.u., anterior muscle group - 1.65 c.u., shoulder muscles - 1.34 c.u., muscles of the thigh - 1.1 c.u. The average level of the neuromuscular system functionality in the 15-16 year-old top-class female boxers was below the model level. On average, there was a 18% gap between the capabilities of the muscle groups and the model characteristics, except for the posterior muscle group.

The test results indicated the uniformity of strength training, which is mainly focused on the development of back strength with a relatively large weight. This direction of physical training of the 15-16 year-old top-class female boxers also leads to the low explosive force of the neuromuscular system, which is essential in boxing. The explosive potential of the neuromuscular system of the female boxers of this age group was 35.4% below the model level.

Сonclusion. The studies identified the weak spots in the development of the speed-strength capabilities of the neuromuscular system of the top-class female boxers. It is shown that it is only the back muscles that are well developed relative to the model level (+3.6%). The functional state of the remaining muscle groups is below the model level, with an average delay of 18.5%. This fact confirms the shortcomings or lack of systematic and rational development of special speed-strength capabilities of the neuromuscular system of the 15-16 year-old female boxers.

References

  1. Akopyan A.O. Rapid assessment of functional fitness reserve level in martial arts. Vestnik sportivnoy nauki. 2008. No. 4. pp. 4-6.
  2. Akopyan A.O., Kalmykov E.V., Kurguzov G.V. et al. Boxing: sample sports training programs for children and youth sports schools, specialized children and youth schools of Olympic reserve. Appr. Feder. agency for physical culture and sports. 3rd ed., ster.. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2009. 71 p.: il.
  3. Popov G.I., Rezinkin V.V., Akopyan A.O. Conjugate technical and physical training in combat sports. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2000. No. 7. pp. 42-45.
  4. Strelnikova V.A., Jandarov D.Z., Jandarov J.Z. et al. Boxing for everyone. Study guide. Makhachkala: Lotos publ., 2008. 304 p.

Corresponding author: асор1@yandex.ru    

Abstract

Objective of the study was to determine the level of development of the aerobic and anaerobic energy supply mechanisms and physical capacity of the main muscle groups of top-class female boxers aged 15-16: chest and back muscles, shoulder muscles, thigh muscles, as well as their explosive force.

Methods and structure of the study. The training and testing methodology for 30 top-class female boxers was aimed to assess the aerobic and anaerobic energy potential and speed-strength capabilities of their main muscle groups: chest and back muscles, shoulder muscles, thigh muscles, as well as the explosive force of the neuromuscular system in general. The female athletes performed 12 exercises in the mode as follows: 15" - work + 15"- rest. At the beginning and at the end of testing, the subjects’ heart rate was measured (beats per minute). The test results were analyzed using a special computer program, where the standard units were calculated in the test for the aerobic and anaerobic energy supply, as well as the speed-strength capabilities of their main muscle groups: chest and back muscles, shoulder muscles, thigh muscles, as well as the explosive force.

Results and conclusions. The studies identified the weak spots in the development of the speed-strength capabilities of the neuromuscular system of the top-class female boxers. It is shown that it is only the back muscles that are well developed relative to the model level (+3.6%). The functional state of the remaining muscle groups are below the model level, with an average delay of 18.5%. This fact confirms the shortcomings or lack of systematic and rational development of special speed-strength capabilities of the neuromuscular system of the 15-16 year-old female boxers.