Speed and speed-strength fitness of athletes specializing in various sports games

Dr.Hab., Dr.Phys.Ed.Sport, Professor I.G. Maksimenko1,2
Dr.Hab. of Russia and Ukraine, Professor G.N. Maksimenko3
PhD, Associate Professor I.G. Komarova1
D.N. Baeva1
1Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod
2Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Kazan
3Lugansk National Agrarian University, Lugansk

Keywords: speed, correlation, fitness, speed-strength qualities, sports games.

Background. The analysis of the latest study reports showed that the training process quality improvement in team sports is still a relevant problem [1-6]. According to the latest scientific research, the structure of the speed and speed-strength fitness of players specializing in various sports games should also be included among the poorly studied issues, in the process of sport mastery excellence from Class III to Master of Sport (MS) [2-4]. Besides, there is little evidence in the modern literature on the comparative analysis of the speed and speed-strength abilities of representatives of various team sports [3]. The above has led to a series of studies aimed to substantiate and compare the speed and speed-strength qualities of athletes specializing in various sports games at the stages of sport mastery excellence from Class III to Masters of Sport.

Objective of the study was to substantiate and conduct a comparative analysis of the speed and speed-strength qualities of athletes specializing in various sports games at the stages of sport mastery excellence from Class III to Masters of Sport.

Methods and structure of the study. For the study purposes, we tested 128 volleyball players, 136 basketball players, 127 handball players, 140 football players, and 118 rugby players qualified from Class III to Masters of Sport. According to the study, the level of development of the speed qualities was evaluated using the generally accepted sport-related methods [2, 3, 5]: in volleyball - "Herringbone" running, in basketball - 20 m run from standing start, in handball, football, and rugby - 30 m run from standing start. The speed-strength rates were obtained in the following tests [1, 5, 6]: in volleyball - counter movement jump and height of the vertical jump with reach, in basketball - counter movement jump, in handball - counter movement jump and standing triple jump, in rugby - standing long jump and standing triple jump.

Results and discussion. As the table shows, the results of the "herringbone" running test, which characterize the level of development of speed qualities in volleyball players, improved (р<0.05) during when progressing from Class III to Masters of Sport:

Table 1. Speed and speed-strength rates in athletes of different specializations and qualifications

Sports game

Control exercise

Qualification

Masters of Sport

Candidates Master of Sport

Class I

m

m

m

Volleyball

 

"Herringbone" running, sec

counter movement jump, cm

Height of vertical jump with reach, m

23.8

76.4

3.09

0.03

0.57

0.01

24.5

70.1

3.01

0.04

0.48

0.01

25.2

67.5

2.96

0.06

0.61

0.02

Basketball

20 m from standing start, sec

counter movement jump, cm

3.18

73.6

0.02

0.92

3.22

69.2

0.01

0.97

3.28

64.1

0.03

0.98

Handball

 

30 m from standing start, sec

standing triple jump, cm

4.18

803.9

0.02

3.12

4.23

779.8

0.01

4.07

4.48

748.3

0.03

5.74

Football

30 m from standing start, sec

counter movement jump, cm

standing triple jump, cm

3.91

64.5

821.4

0.01

0.78

5.64

4.04

60.1

790.8

0.01

0.69

4.78

4.11

55.0

762.1

0.02

0.96

5.17

Rugby

 

30 m from standing start, sec

Standing long jump, cm

standing triple jump, cm

4.21

259.7

789.9

0.02

0.57

4.65

4.30

246.3

769.7

0.01

0.66

4.69

4.43

240.1

737.5

0.03

0.71

4.95

27.8±0.09; 26.5±0.05; 25.2±0.06; 24.5±0.04; 23.8±0.03 sec.

Similar improvement of the athletes' speed qualities was observed in the rest of the representatives of team sports - basketball players, handball players, football players, and rugby players.

The speed-strength tests (see the table) revealed the same pattern of development of the corresponding qualities as in the speed tests: all the indicators in the surveyed athletes improved unidirectionally from Class III to Masters of Sport (p<0.05). For example, the players' skills improvement process (Class III- Masters of Sport) in football is accompanied by a statistically significant increase in the speed-strength qualities of the players:

1) the dynamics of changes in the "Counter movement jump" test 46.0±0.71; 49.2±0.94; 55±0.96; 60.1±0.69; 64.5±0.78 cm;

2) the results of execution of the control exercise "standing triple jump": 671.5±3.72; 712.2±3.46; 762.1±5.17; 790.8±4.78; 821.4±5.64 cm.

The comparative analysis revealed that the football and handball players had the highest level of development of speed qualities, while the volleyball and basketball players had the highest speed-strength rates.

Conclusions. The data obtained help control the amount of sports-specific training tools to be used in the skills improvement process.

Among the participants of the study, the football and handball players demonstrated the highest level of development of speed qualities, while the volleyball and basketball players had the highest speed-strength rates. The prospects for further research need to be attributed to research and comparative analysis of the features of other motor qualities in different team sports.

References

  1. Maksimenko G.N., Maksimenko I.G., Vasilchenko I.I. et al. Long-term training of junior track and field athletes and team players. Lugansk: Virtualnaya realnost publ., 2011. 512 p.
  2. Maksimenko I.G., Bugaev G.V., Kadurin V.V., Sysoev A.V. Team sports: long-term training system for junior athletes. 2nd ed., rev., sup.. Voronezh: RITM publ., 2016. 424 p.
  3. Maksimenko I.G., Voronkov A.V., Zhilina L.V. Comparative analysis of peculiarities of long-term training in youth competitive and cyclic sports. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2016, no. 1, pp. 11–13.
  4. Maksimenko I.G., Voronin I.Yu., Spirin M.P., Rutskoy I.A. Female footballers' technical fitness tests for different skill levels. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2017. no.6. pp. 73–74.
  5. Platonov V.N. Athletic training system in Olympic sports. General theory and its practical applications. Kiev: Olimp. lit., 2015. v. 1. 2015.  680 p.
  6. Bompa T.O., Haff G.G. Periodization: Theory and methodology of training [5-th Edition]. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics, 2009. 280 p.

Corresponding author: maksimenko_76@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to substantiate and conduct a comparative analysis of the speed and speed-strength qualities of athletes specializing in various team sports at the stages of sport mastery excellence from Class III to Master of Sport.
Methods and structure of the study. For the study purposes, we tested 128 volleyball players, 136 basketball players, 127 goalball players, 140 football players, and 118 rugby players qualified from Class III to Master of Sport. The following methods were applied during the study: theoretical analysis; pedagogical observations; testing; mathematical statistics methods.
Results and discussion. The experiment made it possible to determine the quantitative indicators of the speed and speed-strength preparedness of volleyball players, basketball players, handball players, football players and rugby players with different skill levels. Thus, advanced training (Class I - Master of Sport) in football was accompanied by a significant increase in the speed-strength rates in the "Counter movement jump" test: 55±0.96; 60.1±0.69; 64.5±0.78 cm. It was found that Masters of Sport in football (3.91±0.01 sec) and handball (4.18±0.02 sec) had the highest level of development of speed qualities, while the volleyball (76.4±0.57 cm) and basketball players (73.6±0.92 cm) had the highest speed-strength rates.

In parallel with the substantiation of the quantitative characteristics, we conducted a comparative analysis of the speed and speed-strength qualities of the players specializing in various sports games at the stages of sport mastery excellence from Class III to Master of Sport. The findings confirmed the authors' data on the close correlation between the growth of sport skills in team sports and the improvement of the players' speed and speed-strength qualities. At the same time, skills enhancement was accompanied by a significant increase in the speed and speed-strength rates. It is recommended that the data obtained be used to control the amount of training tools used in the skills improvement process.