Rating electromyographic cost of technical elements in freestyle BMX

Dr.Biol. A.V. Voronov1
Dr.Hab., Professor P.V. Kvashuk1
R.V. Malkin1
PhD Ya.V. Golub2
1Federal Scientific Center for Physical Culture and Sports, Moscow
2St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Physical Culture, St. Petersburg

Freestyle as a variation of BMX racing has been actively developed since the end of the last century. The first freestyle competitions will take place at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games. Bicycle acrobatics includes various tricks (stunts): rotations relative to the longitudinal and vertical body axes, flips, barspins. All the technical elements are performed in the air during the 1.5-sec flight.
Objective of the study was to determine the electromyographic cost of technical elements in freestyle depending on the level of difficulty of the jump performed.
Methods and structure of the study. Electromyographic activity of the muscles was recorded using the hardware and software complex "SportLab" (Russia), consisting of the 8-channel telemetric electromyography, video camera, and a synchronization device. We registered the surface electromyographic activity of the muscles on the right side of the body. Sampled for the study was 1 highly-skilled athlete, who performed 11 technical elements.
Results of the study and conclusions. Depending on the level of difficulty of the freestyle jump performed, the electromyographic cost in m. brachioradialis, m. biceps brahii, and m. rectus abdominis increased. An increase in the activity of m. rectus abdominis during the execution of complex technical elements led to a decrease in the activity of the antagonist muscles m. trapesius and m. latissimus dorsi.
The electromyographic cost of work of m. vastus lateralis and m. biceps femoris caput longus was not affected by the element’s complexity, but by the jump height, as these muscles perform a shock-absorbing function on landing.

Keywords: freestyle, jumping, technical elements, muscle activity.


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