Interpretation of approaches to define concept of "athlete’ realizable efficiency" in endurance sports

PhD A.S. Kryuchkov1
Dr.Hab. E.B. Myakinchenko1
1Federal Scientific Center for Physical Culture and Sports, Moscow

There is evidence in the literature that some prominent athletes are characterized by the peak values of the key functional abilities, such as, for example, MOC in the cycling and endurance sports. However, it is safe to say that this is an exception rather than a rule, as it is easy to find numerous examples showing that sports result is not necessarily strictly determined by the high level of the athletes' functional potential.
Objective of the study was to identify approaches to define the concept of "realizable efficiency of an athlete", which characterizes the ability of athletes with the same level of motor potential to demonstrate higher sports results.
Results and conclusions. The article discusses the content of the concept of "realizable efficiency" in endurance sports. It is believed that, in addition to the high level of motor potential, sports result is associated with the formation of a biomechanically efficient structure of an exercise. The latter refers to the movement construction system enabling to most closely demonstrate the morphofunctional properties of the athletes' neuromuscular system and the vegetative systems that maintain its functionality. It is noted that multi-year trainings help top-class athletes quickly reach the limit of adaptation of the main functional systems, while increasing the movement speed. This is due to the increased mechanical power of the muscles in the key movement phases. It is assumed that an increase in the output power in terms of stabilization of the functional performance rates can be associated with an increase of the specificity of manifestations of the neuromuscular system qualities under the biomechanical conditions of the muscle work during a competitive exercise, but within the individual movement system, which, in turn, depends on the innate or acquired features of the body’s morphological structures.

Keywords: top-class athletes, system of motor functions, economical efficiency.

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