V.K. Bal'sevich's ontokinesiological approach to physical activity of senior and elderly people

Dr.Hab., Professor L.I. Lubysheva1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.D. Nazarenko2
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow
2Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk

Objective of the study was the theoretical and methodological substantiation of the main directions of increasing the physical activity of senior people through an ontokinesiological approach.
Methods and structure of the study. Proceeding from V.K. Bal'sevich's conceptual provisions on the age-related development of motor functions, an educational experiment was conducted with the involvement of 24 women aged 55-59 years training in the health group. Two groups were formed: Experimental and Control, 12 people each. In the Control group classes of different kinds of aerobics with low-intensity loads (pilates, rhythmic gymnastics) were held twice a week for 90 minutes. The Experimental Group subjects were trained according to the methodology developed using the principles of health-improvement training and various forms of physical activity.
Results of the study and conclusions. During the educational experiment, the Experimental Group trainees uncovered and substantiated the physiological mechanism of influence of physical exercises on their functional state, placing high emphasis on the psychoemotional state. The classes included game and competitive exercises. The Experimental Group trainees used the following forms and types of physical activity: I - morning exercises, II - independent day-to-day execution of strength exercises, III - organized classes in the health group. Under the provisions of V.K. Bal'sevich's theory of the bodily adaptation to muscular loads, the exercises became progressively more complicated every four weeks.
During the study, the Control group  subjects demonstrated significantly lower test results both at the beginning and at the end of the educational experiment, except for the flexibility test. However, the general well-being of the Control group  trainees improved, while the Experimental group  trainees mastered the following exercises: 2,000 m run without reference to time; rational alternation of power walk/ run; push-ups, sit-ups. The training effect of the classes was manifested in the improved functional indicators of the subjects.
The results obtained indicate that the scientific heritage of V.K. Bal'sevich is of great application potential for improving and preserving people’s health through physical education and sports at all stages of ontogenesis.

Keywords: ontokinesiology, integrative field of knowledge, physical activity, sportization of physical education, adaptation to physical loads.


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