Effects of Additional Recreational Physical Education Lessons on Adaptive Capabilities of Female Students Diagnosed with Inflammatory Joint Diseases

V.S. Milashechkina1
A.V. Rusanov1
A.S. Valyugo1
1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

Keywords: competitive therapeutic swimming, students, health, cardiorespiratory system, functional reserves, physical education.

Background. Students' physical activity is an integral part of the educational process at the modern university. However, not every university provides an opportunity for students to choose the type of physical activity they would like to do during the physical education classes. At the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, students are encouraged to choose a sports specialization. Of course, it is impossible to comply with the wishes of all students, but the majority of sports preferences can be realized. Among the most popular types of physical activity is competitive therapeutic swimming. Students with different levels of physical and technical fitness can start swimming. Swimming solves several tasks at once - not to mention it is a necessary applied skill [1] and a means for the comprehensive development of the basic physical qualities and expansion of the functional reserves of the body [3, 4, 6]. According to the literature data, more than 50% of university students are in failing health [5]. One of the reasons of health deterioration among young people studying at universities is decreased motor activity and physical load relief, which means that young people need that kind of motor activity, in which, over a relatively short period, they will get an adequate training load not only on the skeletal muscles but also on the leading adaptation systems of the body that increase its functional reserves [2]. The cardiorespiratory system in one of them.
Objective of the study was to assess the state of the functional reserves of the cardiorespiratory system of students involved in therapeutic swimming.
Methods and structure of the study. The study was carried out in vivo at the premises of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia and public swimming pool "Harmony", SBI "Physical Culture and Sports Center of the South-West Administrative District of Moscow", Moscow Sport Committee. Sampled for the study were the 1st-2nd-year male students without health deviations, who were divided into two groups: 1st — Control Group — representatives of the body conditioning group (n=28); 2nd — Experimental Group — students engaged in competitive therapeutic swimming (n=17). The cardiorespiratory system functionality was assessed based on the following indicators: chest excursion, vital capacity, oxygen concentration in the capillary blood (in %, using a pulse oximeter), heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure.
Results and conclusions. At the beginning of the academic year, the subjects' cardiorespiratory system performance rates were measured based on the declared indicators. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean cardiorespiratory rates (p˃0.05). At the end of the academic year, the chest excursion rate remained unchanged in the Control Group students and amounted to 7.34±0.67 cm, while in the Experimental Group ones it slightly improved (р˃0.05). Such objective indicator of the external respiration as vital capacity increased in the students of both groups; yet, in the Experimental Group, this indicator differed significantly from that in the Control Group - increasing tendency (see Table 1). heart rate and systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly between the Experimental and Control Group at the end of the academic year either. However, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in the students involved in competitive therapeutic swimming differed statistically significantly (p˂0.01), which indicated an increase in the power reserves of the cardiac activity.

Table 1. Students' cardiorespiratory system performance rates at the end of the academic year

Indicators

CG

EG

p

Chest excursion, cm

7.41±0.13

9.74±0.42

˃0.05

Vital capacity, l

3.82±0.08

5.20±0.15

˂0.001

Heart rate, bpm

85.68±3.12

81.74±2.45

˃0.05

Systolic blood pressure, mmHg

123.18±3.57

116.24±3.14

˃0.05

Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg

89.25±2.50

76.12±1.90

˂0.01

Pulse pressure, mmHg

33.82±1.05

40.75±1.06

˂0.01

The pulse oximetry method revealed that at the beginning of the academic year, oxygen concentration in the capillary blood in both groups did not exceed 96-97%. At the end of the academic year, the average oxygen concentration in the Control Group students remained at the level of 96.32±0.61%, while in the Experimental Group students this indicator increased to 98.47±0.52% (p˂0.01), which testified to the improvement of the peripheral blood circulation in the students engaged in competitive therapeutic swimming.
Conclusion. As seen from the findings of the study, the following external respiration rates increased objectively in the students involved in competitive therapeutic swimming, which indicated an increase in the power reserves of the cardiorespiratory system: vital capacity, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure, as well as oxygen concentration in the capillary blood.

References

  1. Garmonova V.E., Boreyko O.N. Wellness value of swimming. Vestnik Taganrogskogo pedagogicheskogo instituta. 2015. no. 2. pp. 96¬98.
  2. Dorovskikh I.G. Motor activity as a factor in health improvement of younger generation. Vestnik Yugorskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2016.no.1 (40). pp. 167¬169.
  3. Ivanov K.V. Efficiency of swimming practices with special health group students. Vestnik sportivnoy nauki: Obrazovanie, sportivnaya nauka. 2009. no. 1. pp. 56¬58.
  4. Krugliy A.V., Slyudyko I.A. Organization and methods of swimming class design with special health group students: guidelines. Ukhta, USTU publ., 2012.35 p.
  5. Milashechkina E.A., Jandarova T.I., Kunitsyna E.A. Body adaptation capabilities of special health group students with cardiovascular disorders. Chelovek. Sport. Meditsina. 2018. v. 18. no. 4. pp. 123¬129.
  6. Sudakova Yu.E., Pakhraeva O.V., Kamenek E.S. ,Yatsenko M.V. Introduction of wellness techniques in training sessions of special health group students. Izvestiya Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2014. no. 2¬1 (82). pp. 56¬58.

Corresponding author: ea.milash@yandex.ru

Abstract
Objective of the study was to assess the state of the functional reserves of the cardiorespiratory system of students involved in therapeutic swimming.
Methods and structure of the study. The study was carried out in vivo at the premises of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia and public swimming pool "Harmony", SBI "Physical Culture and Sports Center of the South-West Administrative District of Moscow", Moscow Sport Committee. Sampled for the study were the 1st-2nd-year male students without health deviations, who were divided into two groups: 1st — Control Group — representatives of the body conditioning group (n=28); 2nd — Experimental Group — students engaged in competitive therapeutic swimming (n=17). The cardiorespiratory system functionality was assessed based on the following indicators: chest excursion, vital capacity, oxygen concentration in the capillary blood (in %, using a pulse oximeter), heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure.
Results of the study. The pulse oximetry method revealed that at the beginning of the academic year, oxygen concentration in the capillary blood in both groups did not exceed 96-97%. At the end of the academic year, the average oxygen concentration in the Control Group students remained at the level of 96.32±0.61%, while in the Experimental Group students this indicator increased to 98.47±0.52% (p˂0.01), which testified to the improvement of the peripheral blood circulation in the students engaged in competitive therapeutic swimming.
Conclusion. As seen from the findings of the study, the following external respiration rates increased objectively in the students involved in competitive therapeutic swimming, which indicated an increase in the power reserves of the cardiorespiratory system: vital capacity, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure, as well as oxygen concentration in the capillary blood.