Physical education and sports motivations to develop student health culture

Dr. Hab., Professor V.I. Bondin1
PhD, Associate Professor T.A. Stepanova1
PhD, Associate Professor M.V. Belavkina1
1Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don

Keywords: motivation, needs, physical education and sports, student community, sports groups, health culture

Background. Motivational tools are in special priority in the educational system as pivotal for success of the studies on the whole and the academic Physical Education and Sports discipline in particular – as underlined by the valid relevant Federal State Educational Standards. Modern physical education and sport service mission, however, is not only to form the competences required by the Federal State Educational Standards but also to develop what is called the student health culture by the relevant motivational methods.

Objective of the study was to offer an academic physical education and sport service driven model prioritizing the student health culture development mission.

Methods and structure of the study. A recent survey by the Physical Education and Sport Academy found the university students being poorly motivated for the physical education and sport classes, with 53.5% of the students tested with low if any interest in physical education and sport; only 31.3% reportedly interested in sports; 15.2% disinterested in sports; and above 65.3% reluctant to physically train on their own. The survey data cannot but raise questions about the physical fitness of the future graduates for their professional service, particularly in the context of the health deterioration trends found by many recent university health studies.

Thus the regular health tests and examinations in the national educational system have showed that, despite the relatively high share of the student population attending the physical education and sport classes (90.28% of the total), many of them are diagnosed with health disorders since the beginner year. The diagnosed health issues may be classified as follows: musculoskeletal system disorders: 29.5%; visual system disorders: 26.2%; nervous system issues: 13.1%; cardiovascular system disorders: 8.2%; respiratory system disorders: 8.2%; congenital pathologies: 4.9%; excretory system pathologies: 3.3%; sexual disorders: 3.3%; endocrine system disorders: 1.6%; and digestive system malfunctions: 1.6%.

It would be only natural in the above context to expect the young people being highly motivated for health-improvement physical training service models, albeit the actual survey data shows the different trend – apparently due to the so-called negative motivations, with the students perceiving the physical education and sport service as the obligatory academic discipline that should be attended only to get academic credits and avoid arrears. The negative motivations can undoubtedly be used for productive purposes in some cases, although they are still counterproductive for the efforts to engage the young people in the active leisure-time games/ sports/ events, healthy lifestyles etc.

Results and discussion. The initiatives to develop a habitual demand for the physical education and sport activity and tolerance to the so-called bad habits should make a special emphasis on a positive motivations formation system that may be visualized as tiers of the A. Maslow pyramid [4]. Thus the relevant physical education and sport service model implemented at Southern Federal University in compliance with the valid Federal State Educational Standards offers a set of theoretical and elective practical courses. The theoretical course developers gave a special priority to the basics of the own physical progress test mechanisms and training workload management skills – in view of the above survey data that demonstrated 79.1% of the sample facing problems when trying to calculate and manage their individual health-improvement training workloads; and 87.3% found unaware of the health protection and improvement mechanisms and taking no efforts to develop the own health culture using the academic physical education and sport toolkit.

The above theoretical course was designed with consideration for the age-specific group physiology and future professional requirements and responsibilities. The process was facilitated by the logically supportive academic Life Safety curriculum that was also developed by the Physical Education and Sport Academy experts to equip students with the basic knowledge of healthy lifestyles and safe behaviors. The curricula were complemented by the healthy/ safe lifestyle formation components. The theoretical course also gives knowledge of the human constitution, bodily systems, internal organs, nervous system regulation processes, hormonal profiles, temperaments and other hereditary/ personality qualities and specifics that need to be taken into account in the physical education and sport service design and management process.

Generally the physical-education-and-sport-service-driven health culture building model was designed on a kinesisenergonomic approach (from the Greek “kinesis” or movement, “energia” or energy and “nomos” meaning the law or rules) [2]; with the model giving the means to design a heath physical education and sport technology including an energy-costs-compensating well-balanced healthy diets.

The next tier of the motivational pyramid refers to a specific interest group. Our physical education and sport -service-driven health culture building model meets these interests by the elective group physical education and sport service forms. Prior to grouping, the sample health is tested to offer a range of the health-specific grouping and training options; and then every health group is given the health-improvement training system. Such grouping approach may be called elective sport-specific [1, 3]. Students of every specialty are offered a few optional health-specific voluntary sports groups with the flexible training schedules and trainings customizable to the individual preferences. Generally, the elective groups are classified into the following three types: therapeutic/ health-improvement groups; excellence sports groups for the students having some sport qualifications/ accomplishments; and sports-specific physical fitness groups. The model gives every student an individual group sport option that meets his/ her interests, preferences and respects the actual health resources/ limitations. It is important that the sports groups not only give the means for progress in the preferred sport/ fitness area but also help establish the social contacts for the self-expression and self-assertion agenda. It should be noted that the optional sports grouping is determined by the available academic sports infrastructure, regional specifics, local ethnic sporting traditions, climatic specifics and some other factors.

Conclusion. The academic physical education and sport service development initiatives at the Southern Federal University are generally geared to expand the sports group options, with a special priority to the sport disciplines of the highest appeal for the local/ ethnic youth communities (like sambo, judo, freestyle wrestling, mountaineering) and a few newly emerged sports disciplines of special interest for the students. It has long been traditional for the multinational university to run competitions of different ethnic groups and national teams within the student community. These physical education and sport disciplines and events help not only activate and motivate the students for physical progress but also facilitate the social contacts, communication and friendship of different ethnic groups and local youth cultures, with a special socializing and physical education and sport benefits for the foreign students. The physical education and sport -service-driven health culture building model implemented at Southern Federal University has proved beneficial both for the academic progress and health motivations development in the student community.

References

  1. Allyanov Yu.N., Averyasova Yu.O. Students' self­-learning activity in physical education process. National healthy lifestyle programs. International Scientific and Practical Congress: in 4 volumes. RSUPESYT. 2014. pp. 15­21.
  2. Bondin V.I., Usenko S.V., Tretyakova O.Yu. Kinesisenergonomic approach at fitness classes for students. Physical education, sports, health and longevity. IV international scientific conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of SFU. 2015.pp. 19­22.
  3. Efremova T.G., Berezhnaya E.S., Zazulina E.V. Physical education in higher education system: approaches and implementation specifics. Pedagogicheskiy zhurnal. 2017. v. 7. no.1 A. pp 287­300.

Corresponding author: tastepanova@sfedu.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to create a health culture in university students during physical education and sports activities.

Methods and structure of the study. The study revealed the mechanisms of formation in university students of motivation for physical culture and sports activities, as well as identify approaches to the implementation of the Physical Education and Sports discipline as provided by the Federal State Educational Standard and the ways to organize work so that to create a health culture in the student community.

Results of the study. Implementation of innovative approaches into the physical education process is dictated by the current requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education. The authors’ programs include: updated data on the physiological mechanisms, psychological and pedagogical foundations of health, and modern technologies for the motivated choice of sports sections (as an elective component of the Physical Education and Sports discipline).

Conclusion. The authors note that modern scientific developments in the field of study of human beings and the accumulated advanced experience in health and fitness work with university students are of great importance and form the basis for improving the physical education process focused on the formation of their health culture.

Objective of the study was to create a health culture in university students during physical education and sports activities.

Methods and structure of the study. The study enabled to reveal the mechanisms of formation in university students of motivation for physical culture and sports activities, as well as identify approaches to the implementation of the Physical Education and Sports discipline as provided by the Federal State Educational Standard and the ways to organize work so that to create a health culture in the student community.

Results of the study. Implementation of innovative approaches into the physical education process is dictated by the current requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education. The authors’ programs include: updated data on the physiological mechanisms, psychological and pedagogical foundations of health, and modern technologies for the motivated choice of sports sections (as an elective component of the Physical Education and Sports discipline).

Conclusion. The authors note that modern scientific developments in the field of study of human beings and the accumulated advanced experience in health and fitness work with university students are of great importance and form the basis for improving the physical education process focused on the formation of their health culture.