Adaptation Model of Organization of Students’ Motor Activity

PhD, Associate Professor L.A. Kadutskaya1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.N. Voloshina1
Dr.Hab., Professor V.L. Kondakov1
Dr.Hab., Professor V.N. Irkhin1
1Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod

Keywords: physical activity, students, adaptation, adaptive approach, modeling, educational service.

Background. Modern lifestyles are associated with fast transformations in the students’ preferences, interests, values, priorities and physical training needs (in the quantitative and qualitative terms), with the modern underage population often being either hyperactive of physically inactive. The relevant national and foreign studies tend to explain the negative trends by the modern academic curriculum being increasingly demanding to the students' intellectual and cognitive qualities and resources; mentally and physically stressful and limiting the children's leisure time [2, 9]. It should also be noted that the efforts to physically activate children are limited by the lack of physical activity standards in the valid sanitary-epidemiological codes for the modern education services. It is not unusual that the hyperactive or physically inactive underage lifestyles result in stress and bad habits further complicated by metabolic process disorders, musculoskeletal system pathologies etc., i.e. students’ health issues [4]. Despite the multiple national and foreign studies of the above problems, the educational system is still in need of comprehensive physical activity models customizable to the children’s actual age-specific abilities, needs, interests, values and priorities – to secure the developmental processes being effective and healthy. This was the reason for us to develop our version of physical activity design and management model for the modern national education system.

Objective of the study was to design, based on an analysis of the relevant national and foreign study reports, an adaptive physical activity model for the national educational system.

Methods and structure of the study. We analyzed the relevant national and foreign study reports to summarize the theoretical and practical data on the children’s physical activity regulation methods.

Results and discussion. As provided by the valid [sanitary-epidemiological standards] SanPiN 2.4.2.2821-10 (amended version of May 22, 2019), the students’ natural biological need for movement shall be met by at least 3 physical education sessions a week (including the class and off-class physical education service); albeit the standards give no specific physical activity norms nor methods to rate the daily physical activity. No wonder that the associating issues of the physical education service customization/ adaptation to the actual students’ physical abilities and needs are still largely underexplored and unsolved.

We believe that the efforts to design and implement a modern adaptive physical activity model to effectively control the students’ physical activity in the educational process may be complicated by the fact that they should provide reliable test systems to rate both the students’ adaptation to the educational service, and the educational service adaptation to students’ needs. The student’s adaptation to the educational service implies transformations in the emotional-volitional, motivational and cognitive domains to meet the changing school requirements. The more stringent are the educational service requirements to the students, the more difficult may be their adaptation processes.

The above reasoning demonstrates the need for modern adaptive physical activity models for the educational system with a comprehensive adaptation process tests and analyses. We designed our version of such adaptive physical activity model (see Figure 1 hereunder), with the theoretical and practical concepts for the modeling found in studies by V.K. Bal’sevich; T.E. Vilenskaya; L.N. Voloshina; A.G. Komkova, L.I. Lubysheva; I.A. Krivolapchuk; S.D. Neverkovich; Y.K. Chernyshenko et al. [1-3, 5-8].

Mission and goals of the adaptive physical activity model, as we believe, may be attained only based on the following provisions: material and technical assets; professional teaching team; modern theoretical and practical education programs; sound regulatory framework; and effective adaptation process test and analyzer system. Methodologically, the new physical activity model was designed using adaptation, system, operational, personality progress prioritizing, axiological and differential approaches. The new physical activity model includes the following components: goal-setting, content, procedure, and deliverables; with the model controlled using the relevant physical activity testing, monitoring, analyzing, progress forecast tools; and with the trainees’ being controlled and consulted to secure the physical activity service being effectively customized on an individualized basis in terms of the procedures and contents.

Adaptation model of organization of students’ physical activity

Conclusion. It is the modern social demand for a healthy and reasonably physically active new generation immune to hyperactivity and physical inactivity that urges the research community to offer a modern physical activity model for the educational system customizable to the actual adaptive capabilities of the students, with the educational service in its turn customizable to the students’ actual abilities, needs, interests, values and priorities in the physical activity domain. The adaptation physical activity model analyzed herein includes the goal-setting, content, procedure and deliverables components; spells out the physical activity model implementation provisions; and makes it possible to timely customize the physical activity scope, time and intensity to the students adaptability resource so as to secure progress in physical fitness and a variety of psycho-physiological aspects.

References

  1. Bal'sevich V.K. Human ontokinesiology. M.: Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury i sporta publ., 2000. 275 p.
  2. Vilenskaya T.E. Objective risks of physical education process and pedagogical ways to minimize them: case study of physical education process at primary school. Doct. diss.. (Hab.). Krasnodar, 2012.557 p.
  3. Voloshina L.N. Development of health ­protection educational space in preschool institutions: methodology, theory, practice. Doct. diss. (Hab.). Yekaterinburg, 2006.443 p.
  4. Danileyko M.S. Adaptation of children to school conditions by means of physical recreation. PhD diss. abstr.. St. Petersburg, 2008.27 p.
  5. Komkov A.G., Lubysheva L.I. Sociological basis of healthy lifestyle and physical activity of schoolchildren. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. 2003. no. 1.pp. 40­46.
  6. Krivolapchuk I.A. Optimization of functional state of children and adolescents in physical education process. Grodno, 2007.606 p.
  7. Neverkovich S.D. Pedagogy of physical education and sports. M.: Akademiya publ., 2010.336 p.
  8. Chernyshenko Yu.K. Scientific and educational foundations of innovative directions in preschool physical education system. Doct. diss. (Hab.). Krasnodar, 1998.  50 p.

Corresponding author: nikulin_i@bsu.edu.ru

Abstract

The article presents the results of analysis of domestic and foreign literature devoted to the study of the problems of regulation of motor activity in children, as well as the results of analysis of normative program-methodical documentation, educational standards, exemplary training programs and other documentary materials that regulate students’ motor activity. The analysis of recent studies of motor activity in children of preschool and school age makes it possible to identify common scientific interests of domestic and foreign scientists and testifies to the urgency of the issue of optimization of students’ motor activity. The problem of regulation of children’s motor activity in terms of the adaptive approach is still understudied. Based on the analysis results, we developed and proposed an adaptation model of organization of children’s motor activity basing on comprehensive consideration of students’ adaptation to the educational environment