Healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress model for elementary school

Dr. Hab., Professor K.K. Markov1
Dr. Hab., Associate Professor M.D. Kudryavtsev2, 4, 5
T.D. Lmpetova3
1National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
2Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk
3Lyceum No. 2, Krasnoyarsk
4Siberian State University of Science and Technology n.a. Academician M.F. Reshetnev, Krasnoyarsk
5Siberian Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk

Keywords: healthy lifestyle, school students, physical education, psychomotor skills, competences, abilities.

Background. Unhealthy lifestyle is known to expose to multiple health risks that may be effectively inhibited by a conscientious healthy lifestyle formation efforts driven by sound motivations and health protection and management skills including the physical and emotional control and psychomotor progress motivations and agendas [1, 3 , 6-10]. The healthy lifestyle cultivation initiatives should be governed by the modern school physical education concepts to facilitate the healthy lifestyle skills and competency building in the mental, physical and moral progress aspects. As things now stand, the national educational system strives to meet the social demand for a healthy personality raising service with a special focus on the sporting, physically and mentally active and developmental lifestyle. Developmental programs for the elementary school system are still in need of special theoretical and practical methods and tools to offer new physical education models based on modern educational technologies with special health improvement initiatives to reverse the recently reported health deterioration trend in the elementary school system.

Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of a new healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress model applicable as complementary to the elementary school physical education service.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was run at Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev, Lyceum № 2 and a few other educational institutions in Krasnoyarsk. Sampled for the new model testing experiment were 1096 elementary schoolchildren. We designed our healthy lifestyle cultivation, psychomotor progress and health competence building model based on the modern health education technologies and fundamental provisions of the study reports by V.V. Davydova [2]. The health improvement component of the model made a special emphasis on the seasonal respiratory disease prevention elements, particularly in the high-risk months.

In the EG, the physical education classes and off-class trainings for physical activation included special exercises to develop the psychomotor qualities, overall endurance, muscle strength and flexibility, and excel the movement controls and sensitivities in every physical training practice. The off-class trainings gave a special priority to the elementary healthy lifestyle skills and habits cultivation elements dominated by active games. The EG trainings were designed to help the children master the health aspects of the physical education practices based on provisions of the relevant studies [2, 4, 5]. The attention of students and teachers was constantly focused on the ongoing process rather than on the final goals or standards. A special emphasis was made on a favorable psychological climate for the practices, with suggestions on the health benefits of each practice in particular and healthy lifestyle on the whole, to persistently cultivate the elementary healthy lifestyle skills and habits. The RG trainings were designed in compliance with the age-specific physical education service standard.

Results and discussion. The pre- experimental healthy lifestyle skills tests found no meaningful intergroup differences: see Table 1 hereunder).

Table 1. Pre- versus post-experimental healthy lifestyle skills tests of the EG versus RG

Healthy lifestyle skills tests

RG

EG

Difference significance rate

Pre-exp

Post-exp

Pre-exp

Post-exp

t

р

Physical education knowledge

30,2 + 2,2

31,1 + 4,3

25,7 + 3,1

55,2 + 5,9

2,98

< 0,01

Physical education tools usage skills

16,9 + 1,8

20,8 + 3,9

20,1 + 2,9

49,8 + 4,9

3,85

< 0,01

Physical training control skills

12,8 + 1,5

14,8 + 2,9

12,8 + 1,5

40,1 + 3,9

3,95

< 0,01

Physical education knowledge application skills

22,7 + 3,9

24,8 + 6,1

23,1 + 5,2

49,3 + 4,8

2,97

< 0,01

Body tempering skills

11,7 + 1,1

14,9 + 1,6

12,3 + 1,2

19,9 + 2,1

2,53

< 0,05

Tolerance to bad habits

69,4 + 5,9

71,1 + 3,8

70,6 + 5,6

84,9 + 3,8

2,23

< 0,05

Immunity to flu

57,1 + 5,8

55,3 + 5,9

59,7 + 7,6

76,3 + 7,7

2,35

< 0,05

Healthy lifestyle skills and habits

36,3 + 6,8

37,9 + 9,8

37,1 + 8,7

121,1 + 8,7

3,96

<0,01

Walking skills

2,3 + 0,7

2,5 + 0,6

2,6 + 0,4

3,9 + 0,6

2,31

< 0,01

Physical-education-specific breath controls

2,8 + 0,7

2,9 + 0,5

2,7 + 0,5

3,9 + 0,7

3,51

< 0,05

Physical qualities

2,3 + 0,7

2,6 + 0,5

2,4 + 0,6

4,1 + 0,8

2,28

< 0,05

Basic hygienic habits

2,7 + 0,5

2,9 + 0,8

2,9 + 0,6

4,2 + 0,7

2,38

< 0,05

Injury prevention skills

2,6 + 0,5

2,7 + 0,6

2,9 + 0,7

3,5 + 0,7

2,43

< 0,05

Physicality control skills

2,5 + 0,6

2,7 + 0,7

3,1 + 0,5

4,3 + 0,6

2,28

< 0,05

Morning gymnastics

2,5 + 0,6

2,7 + 0,8

2,9 + 0,5

3,9 + 0,8

2,15

< 0,05

As demonstrated by the above Table, the 3-year model testing experiment found the EG training model being beneficial as verified by the significantly higher progresses of the EG versus RG in the pre- versus post-experimental healthy lifestyle skills tests, with the EG tested with particularly significant (р<0.05) progress in the body tempering, tolerance to bad habits and healthy lifestyle motivations tests and most of the other (р< 0.01) elementary healthy lifestyle tests. Analysis of the test data showed benefits of the new healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress model for the elementary school children, with the EG pre- versus post-experimental tests showing a significant progress versus the RG – that showed insignificant progress for the study period.

On the whole, the experiment showed that focused education and training models are needed to form habitual healthy lifestyle skills and secure good physical progress; and that the common teachers’ beliefs in the natural unassisted children’s progress may not be realized in practice unless the progress facilitated by special physical education and health/ healthy lifestyle knowledge building models. The healthy lifestyle cultivation model that we applied in our study secured stable and significant (p <0.05) progress in the EG versus RG to demonstrate practical benefits of the focused educational methods for the healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress purposes.

Conclusion. The new healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress model tested as complementary to the elementary school physical education service was found beneficial as verified by the EG progress in the elementary healthy lifestyle skills tests versus RG. The health-improvement focus in the EG trainings was found to facilitate physical progress in the physical education trainings plus good progress in the healthy lifestyle related knowledge and skills on the whole and in the body tempering and some other physical education / healthy lifestyle components in particular. The new healthy lifestyle cultivation and psychomotor progress model is recommended for application in the physical education programs of the elementary school system.

References

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Corresponding author: k_markov@mail.ru

Abstract

In the setting of a busy and fast paced life of modern society, the problem of formation of health values in the younger generation, especially at an early age, during the first years of study and growing up, is of particular importance. Objective of the study was to determine how significant the values of a healthy lifestyle are for elementary school students in the process of physical education. The study was conducted at the premises of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev, Municipal Educational Institution Lyceum No. 2 and a number of other educational institutions of Krasnoyarsk. A total of 1096 elementary school students took part in the educational experiment. The structure and content of recreational activities that contribute to the formation of healthy lifestyle skills and improvement of psychomotor competence of elementary schoolchildren consisted of recreational measures focused on the prevention and correction of health disorders, prevention of colds, especially in dangerous periods of the year. The Control Group subjects were trained according to the traditional physical education program; while the Experimental Group subjects – using the techniques of mastering of health-improving components of physical education process based on the author's works. The attention of the school students and teachers was constantly directed to activity, process, rather than the final result or a qualifying standard.

The three-year educational experiment revealed a significant advantage of the Experimental Group school students over their peers from the Control Group in terms of the levels of physical and psychomotor development and mastery of healthy lifestyle skills in younger school students.