PhD, Associate Professor S.S. Gulyaeva1
PhD, Associate Professor P.D. Gulyaev1
Dr. Hab., Professor S.S. Dobrovolsky2
Postgraduate A.F. Syrovatskaya2
1Churapcha State Institute of Physical Culture and Sports, Churapcha, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
2Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture, Khabarovsk
Keywords: concept, system, physical education and sports, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), physical health, physical fitness.
Background. Presently the lifestyles on the Russian North are being transformed with the share of physical labor rapidly contracting and physical inactivity being increasingly typical for every age group; with the socio-economic progress and urbanization processes in the area associated with serious environmental damages, unhealthy nutritional habits and other negative factors. As reported by the national statistics of 2018 with the life quality ranking list (based on comprehensive analyses of 70 life quality rates in every social sphere), the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) was ranked number 72 among the Russian Federation constituents. Challengers of the Northern climate with its hardships such as extreme cold, rapid changes in air temperatures, electromagnetic fields and atmospheric pressures – are known to be of serious effect on the individual adaptability resource and physical health on the whole. These extreme and combined health risks are known to trigger multiple pathologies and health disorders [7, 11, 13].
Leading Russian scientists have always emphasized the need for physical activity for better adaptation to the modern lifestyles, with every initiative to protect and improve physical, mental and social health viewed as prerequisite for successful professional service and good living standards of the national population. Local physical education and sport service infrastructure is commonly considered among the key mechanisms for the public health improvement initiatives as it provides a sound foundation for the communal physical progress and health centered activities [1-6, 8, 9, 12].
Objective of the study was to develop a regional physical education and sport / health service building system for the Russian North with a special priority to the communal physical health improvement aspects.
Methods and structure of the study. In our efforts to develop the regional physical education and sport / health service building concept prioritizing the communal physical health improvement aspects, we were governed by the theoretical and empirical system development concepts offered by the leading national scientists and founders of scientific schools on system research theory and practice, namely I.V. Blauberg, E.G. Yudin and V.N. Sadovsky [2, 10].
Results and discussion. The regional physical education and sport / health service system was designed on the following fundamentals:
- Focus, integrity, structuring and integration of the system components (modules) geared to improve the physical health standards;
- Consistent design, with a special emphasis on special projects to develop the communal physical education and sport infrastructure, methods and tools;
- Hierarchical design i.e. the ordered structure of the system components with the interconnection levels and a few subsystems geared to attain the system mission in terms for the communal modern physical education and sport service for every population group;
- Dynamism, i.e. the system responsiveness with its qualitative and quantitative parameters being easily adjustable when necessary;
- Adaptability of the system to the specific environmental conditions of the Russian North;
- Effectiveness of the system in physical fitness, life quality, functionality and psycho-emotional wellbeing protection and improvement aspects;
- Controllability of the system, with its design, applied tools, methods and provisions for the physical education and sport service being customizable to the group physical health rates; and
- Multiplication i.e. the system implementation experience and benefits dissemination in the other regions of the Far North.
The basic design principles of the regional physical education and sport / health service system were as follow:
- Customization of physical health initiatives to the environmental factors of influence;
- Unity of motivations, values, ethnic cultures and traditions and the physical health methods;
- Correlation of the life quality with the physical health methods; and
- Consistency of the physical health test tools with their customization to the regional specifics; and
The system content includes the relevant physical education and sports methods, tools and provisions to facilitate popular physical health initiatives in Yakutia using the most effective social communication channels for the local physical education and sport service promotion. The system has the following main functions: social, pedagogical and cultural. Being a part of the general social and individual culture, modern physical education and sport shall cater for the key social need – that is to facilitate the individual physical progress and thereby meet many social and natural needs and expectations. The regional system design concept was compliant with the common principles of the Russian physical educational system with a special emphasis on the cultural aspects of the physical education process with the relevant general cultural, socio-cultural and ethno-cultural values of the physical education and sport service to encourage progress in positive personal qualities, self-improvement and self-development aspects, motivations and healthy lifestyles.
The regional physical education and sport system consists of 4 units/ components, namely the diagnostic, information, physical health progress test/ control and implementation ones interconnected in their functionalities. These components may be also viewed as the subsystems with their internal and external connections and specific essential features as dictated by their joint mission.
The diagnostic unit of the system implies diagnostics of the local socio-economic, climatic, geographical factors of influence on the popular physical health standards; physical health monitoring methods to test and rate the life quality standards, motivations, values and priorities in the regional communities.
The physical health progress test/ control unit includes the psychophysical health test toolkit, with the periodical tests in every project stage/ age group as follows:
- Preschool population physical health tests and analyses to profile the physical health variations versus the regional “Canchaeri” health standards and the age-specific GTO Complex test standards;
- School population physical fitness tests based on the regional “Erel” standards and the age-specific GTO Complex test standards;
- Unsporting university population physical fitness tests based on the regional physical education and sport standards of our own design and the age-specific GTO Complex test standards;
- Sporting university population physical fitness tests based on the regional "Maarykchaan" standards and the age-specific GTO Complex test standards;
- Adult population physical health / physical fitness / functionality tests in communities to form the regional communal health database;
- Age group physical health / physical fitness and mental health tests and analyses using innovative test tools, software and equipment; and
- Communal physical health data processing and analyzing tools ranging from the individual health self-test/ control records to modern information and test technologies.
On the whole the physical health progress test/ control unit gives the key data to rate the communal/ individual life quality standards, health/ physical progress motivations and preferences and physical progress agendas and prioritize the physical education and sport models and tools.
The information component is designed for the physical education and sport service promotion through the local mass media organizations including television, radio; social/ education/ elucidation networks; healthy lifestyle promotion platforms; publications to cultivate a healthy demand for physical trainings and sporting lifestyles; programs to help master the basics of modern hygiene, diets, labor and rest regimes; public awareness and consulting on a group/ individual basis; promo/ advertising materials (handouts, audiovisual, street ads etc.); health/ physical education and sport sections on official websites of the relevant organizations and institutions etc. It should be mentioned that our studies found a high popular demand (particularly in the middle-age and senior groups) for basic information on healthy lifestyles and popular physical education and sport services in the region.
We selected and classified the educational models and tools for the regional physical education and sport system based on the general principles of education and tutorship, with the core group including the traditional and supplementary physical education tools (with an emphasis on special selected national/ ethnic physical education traditions/ tools), general educational and specific physical education models.
Our multiannual practical research activity and educational experience have showed benefits of the education and upbringing models, methods and tools customizable to environmental specifics and socio-biological contexts by the regional/ communal physical education and sport service provisions. The optimal combinations of national and international traditions with gradually improved education materials reasonably factoring in the local ethnic/ national specifics – have proved beneficial in a few test regions. Generally the Northern ethnic groups are known to develop for their long periods of evolution large arsenals of the traditional physical education methods, active games and sports that may be rather beneficial for the modern communities when organically included in the modern physical progress/ health service models, particularly for children and adolescents, with a special priority given to the harmonized progress of the young people’s motor qualities and skills.
Therefore, the physical health progress test/ control unit in the regional/ communal physical education and sport service system includes a wide variety of the physical education and sport methods, models and tools with the relevant provisions to facilitate physical progress and wellbeing in the Yakut education system, physical education and sport sector, health associations, industries and communities all over the Republic.
Conclusion. The regional physical education and sport / health service building system for the Russian North with a special priority to the communal physical health improvement aspects analyzed herein has proved beneficial and enjoyed a growing public demand since it has been implemented in the regional preschool, secondary school and academic vocational education systems, local physical education and sport service organizations and communal physical education / health sport clubs in rural municipalities and in Yakutsk city in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
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Objective of the study was to develop a concept for building a regional system of physical education and sport and recreational activities aimed to improve the physical condition of the population in the North.
Methods and structure of the study. The study involved general and specific theoretical and empirical methods of research. The proposed system includes a combination of scientifically grounded means, methods and technologies of physical activities of the population of different age groups, which reasonably integrates with the educational and household activities of the people of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The study was carried out in three stages in accordance with the state orders of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation from 2011 through 2018.
Results of the study. The data obtained during the study revealed a new scientific understanding of the essence of physical culture as a tool to improve the quality of life of the population in the North through the prism of a system approach to the physical education and sport activities. The ascertaining experiments we had conducted served as a prerequisite for the development of the concept and the system itself, since our findings helped prove the dependence of life quality on man’s physical condition, determine the motivational and value orientations of different socio-demographic groups of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in terms of their physical condition and physical education and sport activities, assess the effects of the climatic and geographical environmental conditions in the North of the Russian Federation on physical health of the population and characteristics of psychophysical condition of the population of the central regions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Conclusion. The proposed system was introduced into the work of preschool, secondary and higher vocational education institutions, departments of physical education and sport, health and fitness clubs working with adults in the rural municipal districts and the city of Yakutsk of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), and was proved to be relevant and effective.