Analysis of macro- and micro-elemental composition of mixed saliva in athletes

PhD, Associate Professor E.F. Gaysina1
A.S. Prikhodkin1
1Ural State Medical University, Yekaterinburg

Keywords: mixed saliva, macro-and microelements, athletes.

Introduction. The biochemical study of the macro-and micronutrients composition of mixed saliva is actively studied to control the condition of athletes during intensive preparation for competitions [1-3].
The aim of the study is to analyze the micronutrients and macronutrients composition of mixed saliva of athletes during training.
Methods and organization of research. Information was searched in the databases Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, eLIBRARY using the keywords "saliva", "micronutrients" and "athletes".
The results of the study and their discussion. In the mixed saliva of athletes (MSA) engaged in cyclical sports, there is a decrease in the level of calcium and potassium compared to the control groups (children who did not attend sections) [2, 3]. The increase in calcium intake is due to active plastic processes in the muscle and bone tissues. The decrease in potassium is explained by its entry into cells from the extracellular space during heavy physical activity. At rest, the concentration of potassium in the MSA has lower values compared to non-sports people [1].
The increase in magnesium, zinc, chromium and selenium in the MSAis caused by an acceleration of metabolism, due to systematic loads [2]. In adolescents who are engaged in sports that require high levels of endurance, there is an increased formation of free radicals, which leads to the activation of lipid oxidation processes in the tissues. As a result, the antioxidant systems are depleted and selenium deficiency occurs, which the body compensatory tries to accumulate at rest.
Studies of chromium concentration in MSA are the most promising. Chromium ensures the maintenance of a high intensity of energy processes under prolonged anaerobic loads. When it is deficient, athletes may experience hypoglycemic conditions.
Conclusion. The micronutrient and macronutrient composition of saliva changes in athletes during the development of a stress reaction and when physical activity of different intensity affects the body.

References

  1. Loseva L. Features of micro- and macro- elements accumultion in organisms of student-athletes / L. Loseva, T. Krupskaya, O. Tsivunchyk, S. Anufrik // Sport Science, 2016. – Vol. 4. – P. 62-67.
  2. Rylova N.V. Hair and Saliva Trace Elements Content in Young Athletes from Kazan Region, Russia / N.V. Rylova, A.A. Nabatov, A.V. Zholinsky, A.P. Sereda, M.S. Klyuchnikov, E.Y. Rychkov, V.E. Gorsky, S.I. Swede // Journal of Osteoporosis & Physical Activity, 2017. – Vol. 5. – P. 1-4.
  3. Rylova N.V. Mineral Status of Young Athletes / N.V. Rylova, A.V. Zholinsky // SciFed Journal of Sports Medicine, 2018. – Vol. 1. – P. 1-5.

Information for contacting the author: a.prihodkin@mail.ru