Phase Structure and Temporal Indicators of Bar Movement in Clean and Jerk in Weightlifting

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Dr.Hab., Professor A.A. Shalmanov1
PhD, Associate Professor E.A. Lukunina1
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Objective of the study was to develop a phase structure of weightlifting exercises based on the kinematic characteristics of barbell movement and dynamic characteristics of the athlete’s interaction with the support.
Methods and structure of the study. The ways to distinguish periods and phases of classical weightlifting exercises were developed using two video cameras for bilateral video captures that helped profile the weight movement trajectory at the ends of the grip, and a dynamometric platform for recording support reaction force vector and computing pressure center coordinates. In determining the boundary moments of phases of movement, the authors proceeded from the logical and content analysis of the exercise, knowledge of the physical mechanism underlying its performance, and requirements for a rational snatch and clean and jerk technique.
Results of the study. According to the developed phase structure of the snatch exercise, based on registration of the kinematic characteristics of the barbell movement and dynamic characteristics of the athlete’s interaction with the support, the authors distinguish: pre-acceleration phase, transition phase, final acceleration phase, unsupported squat phase, supported squat phase.
When jerking the bar, the following phases are distinguished: half-squat, slowdown, pushing out, unsupported squat.
Conclusion. The proposed phase structure of classical weightlifting exercises to a greater extent reflects the essence of the exercises performed, which consists in the implementation of physical mechanisms of lifting the bar and is more unambiguous in determining the boundary moments of the phases.

Keywords: rationality of athletes’ technique, biomechanics of weightlifting exercises.

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