PhD L.N. Kodaneva
Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow
Keywords: physical culture, physical activity, health of students, physical fitness.
The purpose of the study is to study the prevalence of sports among students and to assess the health status of those involved in sports.
Methodology and organization of the study. The study involved 1220 students aged 18-20 years. The study of the regularity of physical education and sports was conducted by means of a questionnaire. The health status of boys and girls involved in sports was assessed by analyzing the dynamics of indicators of physical development, functional state of the cardiovascular system and morbidity according to medical examinations.
The results of the study and their discussion. According to the data, only one in five (20.5%) respondents are engaged in sports.
The surveyed athletes have different regularity of training (from 2 to 6 times a week). The share of students with a duration of classes up to 2 hours was 74.8%, more than 2 hours-25.2%. As for the length of training, almost all athletes who took part in the study have been engaged in sports for more than 5 years.
The study found that the average height is 67.2% of athletes, body weight corresponding to growth-72.8%. Indicators of vital capacity of lungs (ZHEL) at 75,2% of students who are engaged in sports, correspond to average and above average values. Almost 90% of athletes (89.7%) have average and above average arm strength. Differences in physical development depending on a sport are revealed.
In the course of training, the proportion of athletes with body weight and arm strength corresponding to above-average values increased. The number of athletes with average ZHEL indicators has increased.
During the year of observation, the incidence of athletes increased from 36 to 42 cases per 100 people. In the structure of pathologies, the first rank is occupied by diseases of the eye and its appendage due to myopia (25.6%). In second place are diseases of the circulatory system due to heart rhythm disorders (11.2%). Diseases of the musculoskeletal system due to flat feet and scoliosis occupy the third place (5.6%). The highest incidence is observed in football players.
Sports have a training effect on the cardiovascular system: the Harvard step test index increased from 78.6±1.08 to 83.2±0.46.
Conclusion. Sports activities contribute to the formation of a harmonious morphofunctional status of students. The actual task is to control the volume and intensity of loads on the part of teachers and medical professionals, especially athletes with pathologies.
- Sukhareva L. M. State of health of Moscow schoolchildren and factors influencing its formation (longitudinal study) / L. M. Sukhareva, I. K. Rapoport, M. A. Polenova / / population Health and habitat. - 2014. - No. 3 (252). - Pp. 28-30.