PhD, Associate Professor T.E. Kopeikina
North (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk
Keywords: natural-scientific knowledge, socio-cultural situation, philosophical search, traditions, physical education.
Introduction. Historical and pedagogical traditions of Russian physical education are associated with the name of the outstanding Russian scientist P. F. Lesgaft. The heritage of the scientist is a unique collection of the first scientific works in the field of biomedical and humanitarian knowledge about man. Peter Frantsevich Lesgaft (1837-1909)-doctor of medicine, teacher-innovator, scientist with a world name. Scientific and pedagogical activity of the scientist took place in the era of socially significant transformations in tsarist Russia.
The purpose of the study is to conduct a historical and pedagogical analysis of the traditions and experience of Russian physical education, implemented in Russia in the second half of the XIX-early XX century.
The results of the study and their discussion. Socio-cultural, socio-pedagogical transformations in Russia of the late XIX – early XX century were carried out under the influence of philosophical and political organizations (liberal, conservative, radical). The state policy of containment focused on the class character of education, while at the same time involving the popular strata in the implementation of educational reforms. The main problems of Russian education was to find optimal conditions for the national education goals established in the traditional spiritual ideals (charity, penance, humility, kindness) with the traditional model of the "Trinity" of education, built on "autocracy, Orthodoxy, nationality". At the same time, democratic initiatives made it possible to Orient society towards the formation of a universal ideal of personality in young people (integrity, harmony, purposefulness).
Complex historical-pedagogical analysis of the origins and experience of foreign and domestic education affect the continuity of the value of pedagogical traditions in the national physical education second half of XIX – beginning of XX century the Scientific rationale model of education was the complex medical, psychological, pedagogical studies individual to individual in terms of family and public education aimed at comprehensive and harmonious development of personality, informed and implemented by P. F. Lesgaft.
Conclusion. Comparative studies of physical development and physical fitness of domestic and foreign youth, carried out by P. F. Lesgaft, had a decisive impact on changing attitudes to the education of the younger generation, the introduction of physical culture in educational institutions of Russia, training of specialists in physical culture.
- Lesgaft P. F. Collection of pedagogical works. In 5 vols. 1: Manual on physical education of school-age children / P. F. Lesgaft. - Moscow, 1951. - Part 1. – 444 p.
- Lesgaft P. F. Collection of pedagogical works. In 5 vols. 2: Manual on physical education of school-age children / P. F. Lesgaft. - Moscow, 1952. - Part 2. - 384 p.
- Lesgaft P. F. Collection of pedagogical works. In 5 t. T. 3: Family education of the child and its value / P. F. Lesgaft. - Moscow: physical Culture and sport, 1956. – 439 p.