The Peculiarities of Using Breathing Exercises at Physical Education Classes for Students of Special Medical Group

Фотографии: 

A.G. Zheleznyakov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Kursk state agricultural academy named after professor I.I. Ivanov, Kursk

Key words: students, breathing exercises, respiratory gymnastics, methodology, tests.

Introduction. As marked in numerous scientific, the health level of graduates of comprehensive schools, annually entering universities, has decreased in the last 25-30 years. According to our studies, initially low health indices, functional, physical and technical skills are specific for first-year students [3, 4]. Many first-year students (10-25%) are transferred by the doctors to the special medical group (SMG) after a medical examination [1].

In the academic years 2012/ 2013 the students of Kursk state agricultural academy training in the SMG due to their health amounted to 24% [3, 4] which correlates with the findings in other universities of the country [1].

Nowadays such a disease as spinal curvature dominates among first-year students of our academy - 26,3%, followed by cardiorespiratory and respiratory diseases - 25,1%; myopia in varying degrees - 20,1%; digestive diseases - 18,5%; musculoskeletal disorders - 8%, other diseases - 2%.

A teacher is to define the most efficient and interesting methods and techniques to be used to determine the optimum motor regime for students of SMG in view of their diseases, so that they could better adapt to university educational environment and strengthen their health. Various breathing exercises, walk, graduated slow run, sports games and breathing exercises being executed holding breath inhaling and exhaling can be these methods at the initial phase of work with students of SMG [2, 4].

We made a monitoring of the solid breathing exercises of A.N. Strelnikova, Yu.G. Vilunas, K.P. Buteyko et al. to choose recreational methods and techniques for students of SMG. The Buteyko breathing exercises [2], based on the method of volitional liquidation of deep breathing (VLDB), were proved to be the most well-grounded at present. The studies of K.P. Buteyko [2] confirm that the students’ diseases stipulated above can be cured or suspended using the VLDB method. Unlike other respiratory technologies, the Buteyko method involves the designed standard tables of health zones based on control pause (CP) and heart rate (HR) and СО2 content in alveoli. This technology does not need expensive equipment and easy to learn for large groups of students. Other methods lack such standards and can be applied as additional recreational methods.

My researches [4] contain the results of the use of the VLDB method at classes with students of the basic medical group.

The analysis of the present courseware on the problem of the study revealed the works where student of the special medical group (SMG) is an object of the research and the method of volitional liquidation of deep breathing is one of the methods of recreation [5]. But this author took no notice of the influence of breathing exercises on the level of functional fitness of students in SMG.

Taking into account the illnesses diagnosed among students, we designed a program of respiratory gymnastics with regard to students of SMG from Kursk state agricultural academy and included methods and techniques of Buteyko breathing exercises [2].

The purpose of the study was to reveal efficiency of using the method of volitional liquidation of deep breathing in the course of physical education of students of the SMG.

Materials and methods. Independent educational experiment was the principal research technique and involved the following methods:

  • allocation of the level of functional characteristics: vital capacity (VC), Stange’s and Genchi’s breath-holding tests;
  • determination of students’ health indices based on CP, HR and СО2 content in alveoli indirectly using the Buteyko table of health zones [2];
  • HR while walking and running was estimated palpatory and using pulsimeter by Beurer PM – 20;

All the calculations were made on PC in Microsoft Excel.

At the first three classes we introduced female students to the basics of the respiratory gymnastics, showed and let try the VLDB method, paying much attention to the ability to breathe well and feel your breath. The hardest aspect of the educational research was the fact that one is not allowed to speak when doing breathing exercises due to excess loss of carbon dioxide and arising symptoms of diseases. It took us several classes to settle this issue.

Students were introduced to the theoretical aspects of breathing; criteria of human lung ventilation; symptoms of deep breathing; disorders of water-salt metabolism; body’s oxidation-reduction and factors, physical exercises that facilitate and decrease the breathing depth and increase the СО2 level.

The next two classes were dedicated to tests of female students.

The next 60 hours of classes had the following structure:

  •  introducing part of the work out (5-6 min) - line-up, greeting of students, сообщение задач занятия;
  • basic part (50 min) - female students do breathing exercises based on the VLDB method.

First the respiratory gymnastics lasted 10 min, gradually gaining 1 min from one work out to another till it reached 20 min. Such classes lasted till the end of the first semester of the academic year 2012/13. Starting from the second semester we have been cutting by 1 min the time of breathing exercises based on the VLDB method in every work out down to 10 min.

The technique of breathing exercises based on the VLDB method. Female students sat in a comfortable position for 3 min and then had their HR tested per minute on the teacher’s command. Control pause (CP) was determined in the following way: female students in the starting position - sitting on a chair, inhaled slightly (approximately 500 ml of air), followed by the resting expiration and holding the nose. The teacher looked at stopwatch and announced time aloud. The subjects were to hold the breath as long as they wanted to inhale, which was the time of CP. Then pulse and CP indices were placed on record and the subject kept training based on the VLDB method.

The sea salt solution was applied (in case of various symptoms such as itch, headache, angiospasm, female students took a small amount of the solution or put a salt crystal at the tip of their tongue, restoring the salt and water balance in the body).

The students had their HR and CP indices retested 3 min after finishing the Buteyko breathing exercises. The work out based on the given method was followed by nasal breathing exercises. During the sixth class the students walked for 5 min at the speed 1,5-1,7 m/s. In the next classes the walking time has been increased by 1 min up to 10 min. Walking at the speed 1,8-2,0 m/s at the sixth class comprised на 2 min and further was driven to 5 min. When the students’ CP reached 25 s, we started using slow and steady running exercises (2,3-2,6 m/s).

After walking, fast walking and running physical exercises students did expiratory breath holding exercises (as long as they wanted to inhale). The exercises have been dosed out during the academic year, increasing gradually from 4 to 12 times, and the number of exercises rising from 6 to 24. In the middle of the main part of every class female students played badminton according to the simplified rules for 5-7 min. All the exercises were performed breathing with the nose. The final part of classes was dedicated to nasal breath control and stretching exercises, and the compulsory home-work on mastering the VLDB method and summing up the results of the last class. Moreover, the issues of sleeping, nutrition, water schedule and volume of motor activity were discussed during the classes.

Initial and final results of monthly dynamics of HR and CP of female first-year students of KSAA are adduced in Table.

 The dynamics of HR and CP indices of female first-year students of SMG of KSAA

Indices

n

М

±

m

σ

V

max

min

13.09.12  HR

22

96,0

±

2,0

9,4

9,8

120,0

84,0

13.09.12  CP

22

17,0

±

0,6

2,9

16,9

18,0

7,00

11.10.12  HR

22

96,0

±

2,4

11,0

11,4

114,0

72,0

11.10.12  CP

22

19,0

±

0,6

2,6

13,7

22,0

12,0

15.11.12  HR

22

90,0

±

2,0

9,4

7,1

102,0

66,0

15.11.12  CP

22

20,0

±

0,6

2,9

14,5

24,0

13,0

13.12.12  HR

22

90,0

±

1,7

7,9

8,8

96,0

66,0

13.12.12  CP

22

22,0

±

0,6

2,9

13,2

26,0

15,0

07.02.13  HR

22

84,0

±

1,4

6,3

7,5

84,0

60,0

07.02.13  CP

22

23,0

±

0,6

2,9

12,6

28,0

17,0

14.03.13  HR

22

84,0

±

1,0

4,7

5,6

78,0

60,0

14.03.13  CP

22

25,0

±

0,6

2,9

11,6

31,0

20,0

11.04.13   HR

22

78,0

±

1,0

4,7

6,0

72,0

54,0

11.04.13  CP

22

27,0

±

0,7

3,1

11,5

33,0

21,0

23.05.13  HR

22

78,0

±

1,0

4,7

6,0

72,0

54,0

23.05.13  CP                

22

29,0

±

0,7

3,4

11,7

35,0

22,0

Results and discussion. The functional characteristics of the students of SMG have changed significantly in the last 8 months. Thus, for example, actual vital capacity (VC) in the end of the study (May, 2013) comprised 2350±17,6 ml - 6,8% (р<0,001), compared to initial 2200±21,2 ml. So the indices of due VC of have improved significantly (р<0,001) from 2950±15,1 to 3150±14,2 ml (6,7%).

Stange’s test indices raised considerably from 22,5±1,3 to 38,0±1,6 s - 69% (р<0,001). The Genchi’s test indices, representing CP more, were also subject to major changes from 15,5±1,2 s in September 2012 till 28,2±1,4 s in May 2013, the improvement was 82% (р<0,001).

The HR and CP indices have changed substantially during the work with students based on the VLDB method (Table 1). Here, the mean decrease of the pulse rate indices comprised 23% (р<0,001), indicating to more efficient work of the cardiorespiratory system after 8 months of active breathing exercises. The average increase of the students’ CP indices during the study amounted to 71% (р<0,001).

The total amount of walking load at the speed 1,5-1,7 m/s for 60 hours of classes was approximately 30 000 m; fast walking at the speed 1,8-2,0 m/s - 35 000 m; slow and steady running at the speed 2,4-2,6 m/s - 20 000 m.

Conclusions. Proceeding from the analysis of the courseware, exercises of respiratory gymnastics should be used at physical education classes with students of SMG.

The VLDB method combined with exercises at walking, fast walking, slow and steady running, sports games (badminton), held in accordance with simplified rules and physical exercises performed breathing through the nose, contribute to significant rise (from 6,7 to 82%) of students functional characteristics, which is good for their health.

Breathing exercises were proved to be an efficient method of increasing health level of students of SMG.

References                                                                                           

  1. Apanasenko, G.L. Medical valeology / G.L. Apanasenko, L.A. Popova. – Rostov-on-Don: Fenix, 2000. – 248 P. (In Russian)
  2. Buteyko, K.P. Buteyko’s method / K.P. Buteyko. - Odessa: Titul, 1991. – 232 P. (In Russian)
  3. Zheleznyakov, A.G. The technique of application of the method of volitional liquidation of deep breathing in physical education of KSACA students / A.G. Zheleznyakov, M.P. Martynov, I.G. Schadrin // E-journal “Teoriya i praktika personalizatsii fizicheskogo vospitaniya”. – 2012. – № 1; URL: http://tppfv.esrae.ru/64-93. (In Russian)
  4. Zheleznyakov, A.G. The influence of respiratory gymnastic exercises on the level of functional and motor fitness of students of the basic medical group / A.G. Zheleznyakov // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2013. – № 1. – P. 14-18. (In Russian)
  5. Obolochkov, S.G. The courseware of classes with junior female students of special medical group of the teacher’s college / S.G. Oblolochkov // Fizicheskoe vospitanie studentov. – 2010. – № 2. – P. 48-50. (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: ac-1945@mail.ru